|Habermas IV 517
Bourgeoisie/Marx/Habermas: Marx developed his dialectical concept of ideology using the example of 18th century bourgeois culture. These ideals of education (...) had entered into the self-image and private way of life of the bourgeoisie and a bourgeois nobility as well as into the principles of state order. Marx has recognized the ambivalent content of bourgeois culture. In its claims to autonomy and scientificity, individual freedom and universalism, to unconditional, radical self-revelation, on the one hand is the result of cultural rationalization; without the backing of the authority of tradition it is sensitive to criticism and self-criticism.
On the other hand, however, the normative content
Habermas IV 518
can not only serve their abstract and unhistorical ideas, which go beyond social reality, and it can not only serve to guide a critically changing, but also the idealistic transfiguration of an affirmative, practice. This utopian-ideological double character of bourgeois culture has been repeatedly worked out from Marx to Marcuse (1).
1.H. Marcuse, Über den affirmativen Charakter der Kultur, in: ders. Schriften,Bd. 3, Frankfurt 1979, S. 186ff; ders. Versuch über Befreiung, Frankfurt 1969; ders Konterrevolution und Revolte, Frankfurt 1973; dazu: J. Habermas, Über Kunst und Revolution, in: ders, Philosophisch-politische Profile, Frankfurt 1981, S. 253ff._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Das Kapital, Kritik der politische Ökonomie Berlin 1957
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981