# Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Consistency, philosophy, logic: The expression of consistency is applied to systems or sets of statements. From a contradictory system any statement can be derived (see ex falso quodlibet). Therefore, contradictory systems are basically useless. It is characteristic of a consistent system that not every statement can be proved within it. See also systems, provability, proofs, calculus, consistency, theories, completeness, validity, expressiveness. Within a system, consistency may be demonstrated, but not beyond the boundaries of this system, since the use of the symbols and the set of possible objects are only defined for this system. Within mathematics, and only there applies that the mathematical objects, which are mentioned in consistent formulas, exist (Hilbert, Über das Unendliche, 1926). See also falsification, verification, existence, well-formed.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data

Books on Amazon
Berka I 413
Hilbert/Lecture: "Mathematical Problems (1900) second problem: the second problem is to prove the consistency of the arithmetic axioms.
Consistency/Arithmetics/Problem/Schröter: At first, there is no way to see, since a proof by specifying a model is self-banning, since arithmetic is the simplest area on whose consistency all consistency proofs should be returned in other areas. So a new path must be taken.
Consistency proof/Schröter: for the arithmetic axioms: the consistency requires the proof that an arithmetical statement cannot also be used to derive the contradictory negation of this statement from the axioms.
To do this, it suffices to prove the non-derivability of any statement e.g. 0 unequal 0. If this is to be successful, it must be shown that all the deductions from the arithmetic axioms have a certain property which come off the statement that states 0 unequal 0.
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I 414
Problem: The amount of the consequences is completely unpredictable.
Solution/Hilbert: the process of infering (logical inference) has to be formalized itself. With this however, the concluding/infering is deprived of all content.
Problem: now one can no longer say that a theory, e.g. is about the natural numbers.
Formalism/Schröter: after this, mathematics is no longer concerned with objects which refer to a real or an ideal world, but only by certain signs, or their transformations, which are made according to certain rules.
WeylVsHilbert: that would require a reinterpretation of all the mathematics so far.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Brk I
K. Berka/L. Kreiser
Logik Texte Berlin 1983

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-18