|Identity: Two objects are never identical. Identity is a single object, to which may be referred to with two different terms. The fact that two descriptions mean a single object may be discovered only in the course of an investigation._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Vague identity/Stalnaker: can at most occur with vague terms at identity-statements - solution/counterpart theory/c.t./Stalnaker: if cross-wordly-relation between classes of deputies ((s) counterparts) exists and not between individuals themselves, then the relation must not be the one of identity, and this other relation may be vague.)
Contingent identity/Stalnaker: it is of course not that the actualism requires contingent identity, the above examples can be explained away - one cannot simply reject the possibility on the basis of semantics and logic of identity - necessary identity: that means, that the thesis that all identity is necessary is a metaphysical thesis.
Identity/necessary/contingent/Stalnaker: after modal quantifier theory all identity is necessary. - We do not want this - e.g. a thing can have more counterparts in another possible world.
Solution: different ways of picking.
Vague identity/Stalnaker/Nathan SalmonVs vague identity: (Salmon 1981, 243) according to him identity cannot be vague: E.g. Suppose there is a pair of entities x and y so that it is vague if they are one and the same thing - then this pair is certainly not the same pair like the pair, in which this is definitely true that x is the same thing as itself - but it is not vague, if the two pairs are identical or differentiated.
Vague identity/Identity-statement/vague objects/Stalnaker: E.g. M is a specific piece of land within the indeterminate Mt Rainier - a) Mt. Rainier is an indefinite object: then it is wrong to say that M = Mt. Rainier - b ) if it is about a statement instead of an object: then indeterminate.
Vague identity/Stalnaker: E.g. two fish restaurants Bookbinder's - only one can be the same as the original - Endurantism: Problem: "B0": (the original) is then an ambiguous term - Perdurantism: here it is clear.
Vague identity/SalmonVs vague identity/uncertainty/Stalnaker: Salmon's argument shows that if we manage to pick out two entities a and b that there then has to be a fact, whether the two are one thing or two. (Stalnaker pro Salmon, Nathan) - conversely: if it is undetermined whether a = b, then it is uncertain what "a" refers to or what "b" refers to. - But this does not give us a reason to suppose that facts together with terms have to decide this. - Salmon just shows that when facts and terms do not decide that it is then indeterminate.
StalnakerVsSalmon: its vagueness is a vagueness of reference.
Identity/indefinite/Kripke: (1971, 50-1) E.g. would the table T be the same in the actual world if in the past the constituting molecules were spread a little differently? - Here, the answer can be vague.
Identity/one-digit predicates/Stalnaker: one cannot generally treat sentences as predications. E.g. x^(Hx u Gx) is an instance of the form Fs, but "(Hs and Gs)" not. - Therefore, our identity-scheme is more limited than Leibnizs' law is normally formulated.
Definition essential identity/Stalnaker: all things x and y, which are identical, are essentially identical - i.e. identical in all possible worlds, in which this thing exists - ((s) that means, the existence is made a prerequisite, not the identity for the existence.) - ((s) necessary identity/Stalnaker/(s): here the situation is reversed: if x and y are necessarily identical, they must exist in all possible worlds - or if a thing does not exist in a possible world, it may, in the possible worlds in which it exists, not be necessarily identical) - necessary identity/logical form:. x^(x = y)> N(x = y) - fails in the standard semantics and in counterpart theory, because a thing can exist contingently and include self-identity existence - two different things may be identical, without being essentially identical. - E.g. two possible worlds a and b, each possible for the respective other, and two distinct things have the same counterpart in b, namely 3 - then the pair satisfies the identity-relation in b, but because 1 exists in the world a and is from 2 different, the pair does not satisfy N(Ex> x = y) in b._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003