|Epistemology, philosophy: examines the conditions for the emergence of knowledge and the basis for justification and confirmation. Epistemology cannot explain special cases in which someone who has less information may give more correct answers. See also knowledge, theory, justification, confirmation, reliability._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Rorty I 159
Epistemology: Problem, how can we know whether our internal representations have accuracy.
Locke: confusion of a mechanical theory of the operations of our mind with a "foundation of our knowledge claims."
Rorty I 160
SellarsVsLocke: same error as the naturalistic fallacy: the attempt to completely dissolve epistemic facts in non-epistemic facts. How could he be of the opinion, a causal theory about how an opinion is acquired, is an indicator of entitlement, with which you have that opinion?
Rorty: because he did not think of knowledge simply as a justified true opinion, because he did not think of our knowledge as a relation between a person and a proposition (see: Rorty).
Euchner I 17
Knowledge/Locke: basis: sensations (sensory impressions) - they must be processed by reason and reasoning ability to conclusions - they help to recognize the existence of God.
Knowledge/Locke: not logical deduction but observation of mental processes - "inner sense".
Both perception and reflection are passive.
Arndt II 193
Definition knowledge/Locke: Perception of the relation or conflict of ideas - real knowledge: determinism of ideas (necessary but not sufficient condition.) - Definition Real Truth/Locke: not only verbal.
Demonstrative knowledge: through mediation of other ideas - sensitive knowledge: existence of things that are present to the senses - intuitive knowledge: the certainty that the perceived idea is such a one as the mind perceives it- intuitive and demonstrative knowledge form a complete disjunction of possible safe knowledge - VsDescartes: not recognizing predetermined conceptual content - instead empirically simple given ideas in mind._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Der Spiegel der Natur Frankfurt 1997
Philosophie & die Zukunft Frankfurt 2000
Kontingenz, Ironie und Solidarität Frankfurt 1992
Eine Kultur ohne Zentrum Stuttgart 1993
Solidarität oder Objektivität? Stuttgart 1998
Wahrheit und Fortschritt Frankfurt 2000
Locke zur Einführung Hamburg 1996
Grundprobleme der großen Philosophen - Neuzeit I, J. Speck (Hg), Göttingen 1997