|Use, philosophy: words are used to mention something. The distinction use/mention is important in the philosophy of language because words or phrases in turn may be mentioned, as in a quote or a correction. Within logical formulas parts are used, others are mentioned. See also mentioning, use theory, meaning, meaning theory, language, quote/disquotation, quotation marks, quasi-quotation, object language, metalanguage._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Ruth Millikan on Use - Dictionary of Arguments
Use/stabilization function/Millikan: Question: why do words have a stabilization function and a standardization function?
Definition genetic type/Millikan: we need a genetic type if we classify words only because of their affiliation to families (reproductively established families). So Tokens count as "the same word".
Function: this is not a reference to a function: that shows the example of the parrot.
E.g. a Martian who by chance expresses a word which a Frenchman would use in the situation, does not express a French word but a Martian one.
Language/Davidson/Millikan: language is as difficult to determine as propositions. (Quine: dito in word and object).
Equality/Definition/Davidson: Languages are identical when identical sentences express identical propositions.
Identity/equality/words/propositions/sentences/Millikan: this is about the history of use, not about form or function.
Form/Function/Millikan: form and function can be relevant for subordinate lexicon entries, so that types which correspond to superordinate entries are divided with modern usage by family and form in accordance.
Function: also subdivision into "verb", "noun", etc.
Definition Lowest types/lexicon entries: Entries are also asked if they have "the same meaning". But this is not Fregean sense!
Stabilization function/SF/Millikan: some lexicon meanings are not distinguished by actual functions, but the lowest types are classified by independent stabilization functions of the tokens! And so they correspond to branches of the family.
Each of these stabilization functions can provide further transmission of tokens of the word. There are stabilization functions arranged in layers,...
...some of which stir from earlier times of use, others from more modern times.
Meaning/Word Meaning/Millikan: word meaning is therefore divided into historically earlier and later meanings.
Use/History/Language/Millikan: the history of use is often not documented.
History: here it can be about temporally closer or distant stabilization functions.
E.g. "You will go to ..." is this indicative or imperative?
Stabilization function/Millikan: the stabilization function is part of the public importance. Only through stabilization functions can one differentiate the word meaning and the speaker meaning.
Use/Word Usage/Evolution/Millikan: Programs for repeating words have survived because they have led to consistent sets of beliefs. The programs pass the tester only if they work in accordance with a normal explanation.
Intentional icon: when they have passed the test, such token are elements of intentional icons, with direct Fregean sense.
Derived eigenfunction: has a word when I hear it for the first time. It becomes an inner term. Over time this becomes an intentional icon._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987
"Varieties of Purposive Behavior", in: Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals, R. W. Mitchell, N. S. Thomspon and H. L. Miles (Eds.) Albany 1997, pp. 189-1967
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005