Lexicon of Arguments


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The author or concept searched is found in the following 6 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Functionalism Searle
 
Books on Amazon:
John R. Searle
Dennett I 557
Function/Searle: (according to Dennett): only products that were produced by a real human consciousness, have a function (> objet ambigu, P. Valéry). DennettVsSearle: therefore the wings of the aircraft serve to fly, but not the wings of the eagle.
---
I 19
SearleVsFunctionalism (SearleVsPutnam) relationships between mind states are not only causal. Otherwise stones would have the same mind states like us with the right causal relations. ---
I 59 ff
VsFunctionalism: eliminates qualia - imitation of a functional organization does not result in pain sensation. ---
I 233f
Machine is defined by effects, cannot be recreated from cheese - Computer: is syntactically defined, can be rebuild by anything (cats, mice, cheese) - Syntax is always relative to the observer. Not intrinsical - but heart is an intrinsical pump - also water is describable as intelligent (lowest resistance). ---
I 266F
Intentional phenomena: rule consequences: genuine causal phenomena - Functional explanation: only bare physical facts, causality only through interest-oriented description here - rules are no cause for action. ---
I 266
Function/Searle: has no separate layer. ---
I 269
Pattern: plays a causal role in functional terms, but does not guarantee unconscious representation. (Intentionality) ---
III 24
SearleVsMillikan: function is always relative to the observer (only "flow" immanent) - Millikan: function arose evolutionary.

S I
J. R. Searle
Die Wiederentdeckung des Geistes Frankfurt 1996

S II
J.R. Searle
Intentionalität Frankfurt 1991

S III
J. R. Searle
Die Konstruktion der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit Hamburg 1997

S IV
J.R. Searle
Ausdruck und Bedeutung Frankfurt 1982

S V
J. R. Searle
Sprechakte Frankfurt 1983


Den I
D. Dennett
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
Functions Searle
 
Books on Amazon:
John R. Searle
I 266
Function/Searle: has no separate layer. - E.g. heart has no function, which would be added to its causal relations - brain: by elimination of the level of the deep unconscious, 1. the "physical causation" dissolves into nothing. ---
I 267
The normative component is in the eye of the beholder - the connection of mental content does not need to have a mental content itself - (e.g. delusions). ---
III 24
Function/Searle: always precedes the object: we do not perceive a table simply as an object -> objet ambigu - but nature does not know of functions. ---
III 25
It is nature immanent, that the heart pumps blood, but immanent is the flow, merely attributed to the function - function only in a system of previous value allocations - there, no other facts are detected than causal facts. ---
III 26
Larry Wright: if Z is the function of X, then 1. there is X, because there is Z, 2. Z is a consequence of that there is X - SearleVs: that would eliminate the observer relativity of the function. ---
III 27
Function/SearleVsMillikan: functions are always relative to the observer (only "flow" immanent) - Millikan: functions arose evolutionary - SearleVs: so we can introduce everything and call it relevant - does not explain the normative component of functions - old dilemma: either only raw causal relations - or real "functional" function. ---
III 50
Animals can assign functions to objects.

S I
J. R. Searle
Die Wiederentdeckung des Geistes Frankfurt 1996

S II
J.R. Searle
Intentionalität Frankfurt 1991

S III
J. R. Searle
Die Konstruktion der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit Hamburg 1997

S IV
J.R. Searle
Ausdruck und Bedeutung Frankfurt 1982

S V
J. R. Searle
Sprechakte Frankfurt 1983

Grice Millikan
 
Books on Amazon
I 52
Language/Millikan: in this chapter: what are the relations between 1. the stabilizing function of a speech pattern
2. their literal use
3. the speaker's intentions.
Stabilization function/Millikan: next chapter thesis: one aspect of the word meaning, the syntactic form is the focused stabilization function.
Literary use/Millikan: the literary use does not correspond to any stabilizing function (see below).
Gricean Intention/MillikanVsGrice/Millikan: Thesis: the Gricean intentions are not at all what drives language usage and understanding.
Stabilization function/language/Millikan: if speech patterns such as words or syntactic forms have a stabilizing function, then these direct eigenfunctions of reproductively determined families (rfF) are 1st level, of which these patterns are also elements.
Functions: of words etc. are historically acquired by expressing both utterances and reactions of the listener.
Intention/Speaker's intention/N.B.: these functions do not depend on the speaker's intentions!
Direct eigenfunction: has a word token even when it is produced by a parrot. The token is an element of a reproductively determined family in that it has a direct eigenfunction.
Intention/purpose: the intention or purpose provides a derived eigenfunction.
Derived eigenfunction: however, lies above and beyond the direct or stabilizing function. It can be the same as the direct function, but it does not have to be. In any case, it is not its own function of the speech pattern, it is not its eigenfunction.
Stabilization Function/Language/Millikan: although the stabilization function is independent of purpose and speaker's intention, it is not independent of purposes that speakers can have in general.
---
I 53
Here again there will be a "critical mass" of cases of use. ---
I 63
Imperative/Millikan: now it is certainly the case that a listener, if asked if the speaker intended to obey the command, will surely immediately answer "yes". ---
I 64
But that does not mean that he used this belief in obedience. Gricean intentions/MillikanVsGrice/Millikan: Gricean intentions are thus superfluous. And they also do not help to distinguish unnatural meaning from less interesting things.
In any case, we need not pay attention to Gricean intentions, which are subject only to potential and not actual modifications of the nervous system.
---
I 65
VsMillikan: you could object that you could have reasons for an action without these reasons being activated in the anatomy. Millikan: if I stop believing something, I will refrain from certain actions.
Gricean Intentions/Millikan: the only interesting question is whether they are realised actually inside while one is speaking.
E.g. Millikan: the Sergeant says: "When I say 'stop' the next time, do not stop!"
A similar example is given by Bennett.
Problem: the training was so effective that the soldier did not manage to stop.

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987

Predicates Millikan
 
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I 109
Subject/predicate/picture/Millikan: thesis: there is no difference between the way in which logical subjects of sentences map... ---
I 110
...the world, and the way in which logical predicates do this. 1. Because one can replace predicates by other predicates, e.g. "... swims" by "... flies", they are still not to be viewed as objects.
(BrandomVsMillikan/(s): distinction between the frame and the insertion-"gap").
2. Question: Do predicates have to correspond to universals when we treat them as substances? In any case, we must not look at them as single objects, but rather as in tradition as thought objects or as possibilities.
Universals/Millikan: universals as thought objects; are they in nature?
Predicates/Millikan: every simple predicate must reflect a historically variability rooted in nature ((s)> disjunction, disjunctive).
Complex Predicates/Millikan: They too are supposed to reflect variables of nature, but they do not have to be things.
Property/kind/Millikan: property and kind have only one settlement space: that is nature itself.
---
I 111
3. Relation/property/Millikan: as variants within facts they receive intentionality from causal and explanatory connections! Then they must be in the same way in nature as is their identity or their sameness. ---
I 227
Negation/Predicate/Logical Subject/Millikan: the common basis in the opposite corresponds to the logical subject. E.g. Bill cannot be both large and small at the same time. Negation: operates on the logical predicate. It does not change the meaning (the mapping rules). It operates on the part of the logical predicate, which is the grammatical predicate of the sentence.
E.g. "painfully disappointed, Johnny never came back".
Embedded sentence: "Johny was painfully disappointed": is embedded in the grammatical subject.
Truthmaker: Problem: e.g. "some day-active bats are not herbivores" is not made true by the fact that all bats are nocturnal.
Negative sentence: its function is to give positive information. A useful negative sentence will limit the domain of possibilities.
---
I 228
External negation: "it is not the case that ..." may also affect more than the grammatical predicate. ---
I 272
Subject/Predicate/Strawson/Millikan: (Subject and predicate in "Logic and Grammar") Millikan: I replaced "general concept" here by "properties": fundamental asymmetry: Particular: space-temporal, exemplifying properties that come from a certain domain.
Then we know for each property that it is in competition with others.
Asymmetry: there is no such competition for particulars. No individual competes with others for properties within a domain.
No things are related to each other, so that for each property that exemplifies the one, it would follow that the other does not exemplify them (even not at the same time).
MillikanVsStrawson: but what is "logical competition" among properties? It is traditionally recognized among concepts, but we cannot transfer it to properties and relations.

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987

Seeing Millikan
 
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I 244
Seeing-as/Seeing/Millikan: seeing-as seems to be a preliminary act of identification. N.B./Millikan/(s): seeing a three-dimensional object means to see an object with a back.
Image/Wittgenstein/Millikan: seeing a painted object is only an alleged seeing-as.
---
I 301
Seeing/Knowledge/Eye/Millikan: the lens of the eye automatically adjusts to sharpness. The function is now that the object, which diffuses rays, is once again bundled (composed) into an object in the eye. For this purpose, however, the organism first has to know when the eyes are focused on an object, i.e. it must know which object the world should look alike, (s)VsMillikan: then only adults could see.
General/Millikan: there must then be characteristics that characterize typical clear images of objects.
Learning/Psychology/Learning Psychology/Millikan: has recently shown that the hard wiring of such knowledge belongs to the conditions of learning.

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987

Semantics Brandom
 
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I 297
Brandom's thesis: understanding the semantics based on the pragmatics. ---
II 145
Semantic theory/BrandomVsDretske/VsMillikan/VsFodor: Problem: Cannot explain how real representations (beliefs) differ from simple indicator states (>RDRDs, reliable differential responsive dispositions). ---
II 146
Reliability theory/Brandom: cannot be applied to the semantics. - Epistemology is its suitable working area. ---
Newen I 161
Brandom/Newen/Schrenk: reverses the conventional semantics. - Justifying the correctness of e.g. "If A is located east of B, B is located west of A". - By the meaning of "west" and "east". ---
Newen I 162
West and east acquire their meaning precisely because they occur in such inferences - " basic concepts: not truth and reference (Tarski s truth concept too weak) - "correctness: from social practice - "Meaning: arises from the inferential roles.

Bra I
R. Brandom
Expressive Vernunft Frankfurt 2000

Bra II
R. Brandom
Begründen und Begreifen Frankfurt 2001


New II
Albert Newen
Analytische Philosophie zur Einführung Hamburg 2005

Newen I
Albert Newen
Markus Schrenk
Einführung in die Sprachphilosophie Darmstadt 2008

The author or concept searched is found in the following 6 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Fodor, J. Brandom Vs Fodor, J.
 
Books on Amazon
I 731
BrandomVsNarrow Content: it is not easy at all to tell a coherent story here. Narrow states should be the same for similar individuals. However, because of different contexts there are also some that are distinct for different individuals. These can be identified as copies of each other only by restricting the permissible distinction in their language. This restriction can not be justified without a circle.
II 12
Criteria / BrandomVsDretske, VsFodor, VsMillikan: not semantic continuity to the non- or pre-conceptual, but strict discontinuity.
II 144
Semantic Theory: Dretske, Millikan, Fodor.   BrandomVs: the theory is weakest where they ask of what distinbguishes representations that deserve to be called beliefs, from other index states.
Esfeld I 71
FodorVsSemantic holism: compositionality principle (words contribute to the meaning of the sentence): a semantics of the inferential role cannot account for the KP. BrandomVsFodor: compositionality is neutral with respect to an explanation that starts from below.
NS I 161
Brandom/Newen/Schrenk: kehrt die herkömmliche Semantik um. Statt wie die Semantik anzunehmen, dass die Korrektheit des Schlusses Bsp „Wenn Princeton östlich von Pittsburgh liegt, liegt Pittsburgh westlich von Princeton“ durch die Bedeutung von „östlich“ und „westlich“ zu begründen,
NS I 162
Führt er eine kopernikanische Wende durch: Brandom: These: „westlich“ und „östlich“ erhalten ihre Bedeutung gerade, weil sie in solchen Folgebeziehungen vorkommen. Das ganze Netz von Satzäußerungen, in denen die Worte vorkommen, und auch die entsprechenden Handlungen konstituieren den begrifflichen Gehalt der Worte.
Inferentialismus/Brandom/Newen/Schrenk: sieht nicht Wahrheit und nicht Referenz als fundamentale bedeutungskonstituierende Einheiten an.
Korrektheit/Brandom: welche Folgerungen aus welchen Äußerungen korrekt sind, wird pragmatisch über die durch implizite Regeln geleitete soziale Praxis festgelegt.
Bedeutung/Holismus/Brandom: die Bedeutung von Begriffen und Äußerungen erwächst aus ihren inferentiellen Rollen zu anderen Begriffen und Äußerungen, daher sind sie nicht atomistisch sondern holistisch. (BrandomVsFodor).

Bra I
R. Brandom
Expressive Vernunft Frankfurt 2000

Bra II
R. Brandom
Begründen und Begreifen Frankfurt 2001

Es I
M. Esfeld
Holismus Frankfurt/M 2002
Grice, P.H. Millikan Vs Grice, P.H.
 
Books on Amazon
I 3
Speech patterns/language device/terminology/Millikan: by that I mean words, syntactic forms, accentuation, accents, punctuation, etc.
Thesis: such patterns have survived only because stable overt and covert responses of a cooperative partner are also handed down (have prevailed).
Standardization/Millikan: the (voice) pattern exerts its own function only with a partner, but with anyone. Therefore, it must be standardized.
Stabilization/Millikan/(S): (in time) with recurring token resemblance to earlier ones must be given.
Stabilization/standardization/Millikan: two sides of a coin.
Speech patterns/Millikan: can often be used in a parasitic way (diverted use).
I 4
Ex metaphor, sarcasm, lying, irony. Standard: even if they are not being used in a deviating way the pattern may yet fail in use.
Standardization/stabilization: therefore, they are not an "average function", but have to do with a "critical mass" of cases; they form a "center of gravity".
Solution: can not be found by forming an "average" of idiolects.
I 5
Characteristic function/language/meaning/MillikanVsGrice: we therefore do not take the meaning of the speaker as the fundamental concept. Meaningfulness/Millikan: we do not it explain with typical use.
belief/wishes/intention/Millikan: thesis: can be explained without reference to language.

I 51
quotation from Stevenson's "Kidnapped".
I 52
Literature/Millikan: there are more ((S) fine) differences within the literature as many philosophers have opened up. Language/Millikan: in this chapter: what are there relations between
1. the stabilizing function of a speech pattern
2. its literal use
3. the speaker's intentions.
Stabilizing function/Millikan: thesis of next chapter: an aspect of the meaning of words, of the syntactic form is the focused stabilizing function.
literal use/Millikan: corresponds to no stabilizing function (see below).
Intention according to Grice/MillikanVsGrice/Millikan: thesis: Grice's intentions are not what drives usage and understanding.

I 61
Understanding/MillikanVsGrice/Millikan: thesis: is a direct perception of what a speech is about (aboutness), not a conclusion from the clauses heard! And certainly not a conclusion on speaker intentions.
I 62
Conviction/Millikan: 1. arises partly from the internal composition of the subject (nerves, interconnection, etc.) but two people with the same interconnections need not have the same beliefs.
I 63
2. not all the internal hardware is in use if you believe something. Belief/having/use/Millikan: I may have a conviction but not use is, Ex I almost never need the conviction that Columbus discovered America, especially not when I'm brushing my teeth.
Discovery/Conviction/Millikan: Ex a mathematician who is awake and looking for a proof and finally finds it: one can not say of him_her that he_she has previously believed it!
Imperative/Millikan: now, it is certainly the case that a listener when asked if the speaker had intended that s_he obeys the command, certainly will immediately answer "yes".
I 64
But that does not mean that s_he has used this belief during obedience. Intentions according to Grice/MillikanVsGrice/Millikan: are therefore superfluous. And they also can not help to distinguish non-natural meaning from less interesting things.
Anyway, we do not need to consider Grice's intentions that are subject the only potential and not actual modifications of the nervous system.
I 65
VsMillikan: it could be argued that one might have reasons for an act without these reasons being activated in the anatomy. Millikan: when I stop to believe in something, I'll refrain from the corresponding actions.
Intentions according to Grice/Millikan: the only interesting question is whether they are actually realized inside while speaking.
Ex Millikan: the sergeant says, "the next time I say 'stop' do not stop!"
There is a similar Ex by Bennett.
Problem: the training was so effective that the soldier is not able not to stop.
I 66
Bennett: the conclusion is made in a non-Grice manner. Rationality/Bennett/Millikan: it seems that as a rational person one should not choose "shortcuts". That is, one must not only take account of positive evidence, but also of negative.
((S) The idea is that what has been rationally learned covers what is rationally demanded. But both times it is about speaker intentions, one time past ones, another time present ones).
generally/formally: Ex Suppose John believes
"Usually: if A then B" and also:
"Non- (usually: if A-and-not-C, then B)"
rational: then would follow that John had to believe.
a) "usual: if A then C" and
b) if A and C, then B. Then there are the following possible cases.
1. the only evidence of C comes from the fact that John knows that usually, if A then C. Then he should just move from A to B.
2. John has independent ways to believe C on the basis of evidence. And he encounters A, while he already has evidence of non-C.
I 67
Then, rationally, he should also believe that non-C and not conclude from A to B. 3. John has independent evidence according to which he could know C, but this time he does not know beforehand, whether C.
Question: to be rational, does he have to check beforehand whether C?
Millikan: we assume that he has to.
Problem: if again, that only depends on him believing:
"Usually, if D, then C" etc.
Rationality/Millikan: Problem: the more knowledge one then acquires, the more of an effort one must make to be rational at all. Would it not be better to omit all this verifying?

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987
Millikan, R. Brandom Vs Millikan, R.
 
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Millikan I 109
Subjekt/Prädikat/Abbildung/Millikan: These: es gibt keinen Unterschied zwischen der Weise, in der logische Subjekte von Sätzen
I 110
die Welt abbilden und der Weise, wie dies logische Prädikate tun. 1. weil man Prädikate ersetzen kann durch andere Prädikate Bsp „...schwimmt“ durch „...fliegt“ sind sie noch lange nicht als Gegenstände anzusehen.
(BrandomVsMillikan/(s): Unterscheidung von Rahmen und Einsetzungs-“Lücke“).
2. Frage: müssen Prädikate Universalien entsprechen, wenn wir sie behandeln wie Substanzen? Jedenfalls müssen wir sie nicht als Einzeldinge ansehen, sondern wie die Tradition als Gedankenobjekte oder als Möglichkeiten.
Universale/Millikan: Universalien als Gedankenobjekte; sind sie in der Natur?
Prädikate/Millikan: jedes einfache Prädikat muss eine historisch in der Natur verwurzelte Variabilität widerspiegeln ((s) >disjunkt, disjunktiv).
komplexe Prädikate/Millikan: auch sie sollen Variablen der Natur widerspiegeln, aber das müssen keine Etwasse (Dinge) sein.
Eigenschaft/Art/Millikan: haben nur einen Siedlungsraum: das ist die Natur selbst.
I 111
3. Relation/Eigenschaft/Millikan: als Varianten innerhalb von Tatsachen erhalten sie aus kausalen und erklärungsmäßigen Verbindungen Intentionalität! Dann müssen sie in der gleichen Weise in der Natur sein, wie es ihre Identität oder Selbigkeit auch ist! (s.u. Teil IV).

Bra II
R. Brandom
Begründen und Begreifen Frankfurt 2001
Millikan, R. Searle Vs Millikan, R.
 
Books on Amazon:
John R. Searle
III 27
Function/Ruth Millikan (SearleVs): new concept of "actual function" based on "reproduction" and causation. Recursive definition: So that an object A has a function F as its "proper function", it is necessary (and also adequately) that meets either one of the following conditions:
1. A emerged as a "reproduction" (copy or copy of a copy) of an earlier object that has actually performed partly due to the possession of reproduced characteristics, F in the past, and A exists (causal historical) due to this direction.
2. A has emerged as the product of any previous means that under the circumstances of this direction of F had a real function and that under these circumstances is usually the reason that F is performed by means of the production of objects such as A. (derived "actual functions").
Function/SearleVsMillikan: so one can introduce any new technical expression. However, such definitions do not take any certain essential characteristics of the ordinary concept of function into consideration.
1. For Millikan the definition of the function depends on a specific causal historical theory.
II 28
Even if all previous, also Darwinian turn out to be wrong, my heart would continue to pump blood. 2. Furthermore, there are also stark counter-examples: E.g. according to Wright and Millikan we would have to say that it is the function of colds to spread cold germs.
SearleVs: but colds do not have any function at all!
3. The normative component of functions remains unexplained. (Although Millikan's theory takes into account that some features in reality may not be exercised.) Normative: Millikan does not explain why we are talking about better and worse functioning hearts, heart failure, etc..
Old dilemma: either we talk about crude, blind, causal relations, or we believe that there really is something functional to functions, although Millikan omits the observer relative properties.
III 29
Observer relative/Searle: functions, the fact that there are police officers and professors. (Intensional). Immanent: the fact that there are people at all. Blind, causal relations.
Function: a) Use Function: screwdriver, drive shaft.
b) Non-use functions: independent of practical intentions of the people: the function of the heart to pump blood.
III 33
Use functions: within: special class: representative function, represent something, stand for something else: e.g. baseball icons.

S I
J. R. Searle
Die Wiederentdeckung des Geistes Frankfurt 1996

S II
J.R. Searle
Intentionalität Frankfurt 1991

S III
J. R. Searle
Die Konstruktion der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit Hamburg 1997

S IV
J.R. Searle
Ausdruck und Bedeutung Frankfurt 1982

S V
J. R. Searle
Sprechakte Frankfurt 1983
Millikan, R. Verschiedene Vs Millikan, R. Millikan I 90
Satz/Überzeugung/Sprache/Denken/Millikan: es scheint klar, dass wenn wir keine Überzeugungen hätten, wir aufhören würden, zu sprechen bzw. Sätze mit Bedeutung zu äußern. Aber warum ist das klar? Wir brauchen eine andere Erklärung (s.u.).
Satz/Intentionalität/Millikan: These: ein Satz (und jedes andere typisch intentionale Muster) ist intentional wegen Eigenfunktionen und Normalen Relationen, die dieses Muster zu einem Produzenten und einem Interpreten hat. Diese beiden sind kooperierende Einheiten in diesem Prozess.
Pointe: dann sind Sätze doch grundlegend intentional und haben keine abgeleitete Intentionalität. (MillikanVsTradition, MillikanVsSearle).
((s) Intentionalität/Millikan/(s): muss sich dann nicht mehr auf das Mentale berufen. )
VsMIllikan: man könnte einwenden, dass Intentionalität doch mit dem Mentalen verbunden sein muss, weil die Analyse der Intentionalität von Gedanken oder innerer Repräsentationen wenigstens im Einklang mit Prinzipien geschehen müsste, nach denen Bewusstsein und das Mentale selbst analysiert werden muss.
Relation/VsMillikan: die von Millikan angebotenen Relationen seien bloß externe. Bestenfalls korrelieren sie Veränderungen des Bewusstseins mit Veränderungen in der externen Welt. Sie liegen selbst außerhalb des Geistes und außerhalb des Bewusstseins.
Bewusstsein/Tradition: sei aber ein Bewusstsein der Welt, nicht bloß Bewusstsein der Veränderungen seiner selbst.
I 91
Tradition: wir erfahren unser Bewusstsein direkt. MillikanVsTradition: was soll das für eine Erfahrung der Intentionalität sein? Was für eine Kraft soll dieses Argument haben?
Die Kraft müsste epistemisch und rational sein.
Unkorrigierbarkeit/MillikanVsTradition: die Erfahrung des Bewusstseins (Erfahrung der Intentionalität) müsste etwas Unfehlbares haben. Wir müssten dann auch ein unmittelbares Verstehen haben. Es müsste auch die Existenz von Intentionalität und Bewusstsein annehmen, denn sonst könnte die Erfahrung ja nicht „in“ ihr sein.
Bewusstsein/Tradition: nimmt an, dass das Bewusstsein durchsichtig (transparent) sei. Und daher könne sie nicht allein aus externen Relationen zur äußeren Welt bestehen, und seien diese naturnotwendig.
MillikanVsVs: Angenommen, wir lehnen dieses epistemisch rationalistische Bild ab, d.h. wir leugnen, dass es „epistemisch Gegebenes“ gibt. Dann könnten wir zugeben, dass sich Leute manchmal ihrer Gedanken bewusst sind. Aber wir könnten aufrechterhalten, dass dieses Bewusstsein (awareness) teilweise eine externe Relation ist. Die „Innenseite“ dieses Gefühls (Bewusstsein, awareness)
I 92
gibt keine Garantie dafür, dass es die Innenseite einer echten Bewusstseinsrelation (awareness Relation) ist. Bewusstsein/Millikan: selbst Bewusstsein von Bewusstsein ist kein unmittelbares Objekt. Es gibt nichts durchsichtiges am Bewusstsein.
Pointe/Millikan: das ist beunruhigend, weil daraus folgt (negative These), dass es möglich ist, dass wir nicht wissen, was wir denken! ((s) DavidsonVsHume: dito). D.h. aus dem Akte des Bewusstseins selbst heraus ist nichts garantiert.
Rationalismus/rationalistisch/Intentionalität/Bewusstsein/MillikanVsRationalismus/Millikan: die traditionelle rationalistische Sicht des Bewusstseins und der Intentionalität führt ein eine Sackgasse nach der anderen.




Wittgenstein, L. Millikan Vs Wittgenstein, L.
 
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I 221
not/"not"/Tractatus/Wittgenstein/Millikan: thesis: "not" is an operator which operates on the rest of the sentence by changing the meaning of the entire sentence. (S)VsWittgenstein/(S)VsMIllikan: Problem: a) "no" does not belong to the sentence, then it can be applied on the whole sentence "The sun is shining".
Wittgenstein: "no" changes the meaning of the sentence, to which it belongs.
b) it is part of the sentence, then it would have to be applied twice, the second time on itself. It only changes the meaning, if it is not part of the sentence.
Projection theory/image theory/Tractatus/Wittgenstein/Millikan: then the sentence stands for something that does not exist.
Problem/Millikan: this leads to a reification of possibilities.
negative sentence/negation/existence/Millikan: negative sentences can not have non-existent facts as real value.
Justification: negative facts have no causal powers that could play a role in a normal explanation.
negative sentence/Millikan: we could assume that negative sentences are not representations. Ex "not-p" is to say "the fact that p does not exist". Wittgenstein has understood it roughly in that way.
Pointe: above we said that existence theorems are not representations.
projection theory/image theory/Tractatus/Wittgenstein/Millikan: but he does not think that sentences of the form "x does not exist" represent a non-existent fact. Then the variable "X" in "x does not exist" is not about names of individual things (objects, elementary objects) but about representations of possible states (possible facts).
Sense/non-existence/negation/Wittgenstein/Millikan: so it was possible for him to maintain that sentences of the form "x does not exist" have a meaning. ((S)> Meinong).
Millikan: in our terminology that is, they are representations (MillikanVs).
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And at the same time he could argue that the most basic elements of all propositions correspond to real objects. Pointe: this made it possible that he could say "x does not exist" is always equivalent to a sentence of the form "not-p".
Millikan: couldn't we keep up at least one half of this equivalence? From "non-p" to "that p does not exist"?
MillikanVsWittgenstein: no, not even that we can.
When Wittgenstein was right and "not-p" says "that p does not exist", then that would mean for my position that negative sentences dont project world states and aren't representations.
Millikan: instead they would project linguistic facts, "not-p" would be an icon, but it does not represent, even though a world state would have the sentence type "p" as a variant.
Proto reference/Millikan. "P" would not be an underrepresented reference of "not-p" but a proto reference
.Question: would "not-p" be an icon of "p is false"?
Vs: then "not" would no longer be an operator!
Not/negation/operator/Wittgenstein/Millikan: that is, the projection rule for "not-p" is a function of the projection rule for "p".
1. If "no" would not be an operator, it could happen that someone does not understand the meaning of "p", but still the meaning of "not-p". Absurd.
2. if "not-p" says "that p does not exist", "not-p" would also have to be true if any version of "p" is not completely determined, has no custom meaning. Ex "Pegasus was not a winged horse" Ex "The present king of France is not bald" were true statements!
3. sure, ""p" is wrong" at least reflects (icons) that "p" has no real value. Accordingly: "x does not exist" then reflects the fact that "x" has no reference.
Pointe: if "not-p" says "that p" does not exist, it still projects a negative fact.
negative fact/Millikan: we should be able to show that a negative fact is still something else than the non-existence of a positive fact. But we can not. We have just moved in circles.
non-existent fact/Millikan: can not be a matter of an icon and not the object of a representation.
negative fact/Millikan: would have to be something other than a non-existent fact.
Pointe: but if we can show that, we don't need to assume any longer that "not-p" says "that p does not exist".
negative sentence/projection/fact/negation/Millikan: what I have to claim is that negative sentences depict real or existing world states (facts).
It is well known how such a thing is done:
Negation/solution: one simply says that the negation is applied only to the logical predicate of the sentence ((S) internal negation). Here, the meaning of the predicate is changed so that the predicate applies to the opposite (depicts) as of what it normally does.
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This can then be extended to more complex sentences with external negation: Ex "No A is " becomes "Every A is non-".
MilllikanVs: the difficulties with this approach are also well known:
1. Problem: how can the function of "not" be interpreted in very simple sentences of the form "X is not" Ex "Pegasus is not (pause)". Here, "not" can be interpreted as operating through predicates! Sentences of the form "X is not" are of course equivalent to sentences of the form "x does not exist."
Problem: we have said that "existing" is no representation. So "not" can not be interpreted as always operating on a predicate of a representative sentence.
Ex "Cicero is not Brutus" can not operate on a logical predicate of the sentence, because simple identity sentences have no logical predicate. So "not" must have still other functions.
Problem: how do these different functions relate to each other? Because we should assume that "not" does not have different meanings in different contexts.
meaningless/meaningless sentences/negation/projection/Millikan: here there is the same problem:
Ex "Gold is not square". The sentence does not become true just because gold would have another form than to be a square.
Problem: the corresponding affirmative sentences have no sense!
Yet Ex "Gold is not square" seems to say something real.
Problem: in turn: if "not" has a different function here than in representing sentences, we still need to explain this function.
2. Problem: (Important): the projective rules between simple sentences of the form "X is not " and its real value.
real value/negation/Millikan: is the real value of a negative sentence the world state? Ex The fact of John's not-being-tall? Or a precise fact as Johns being-exactly-180cm?
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Millikan: the latter is correct. Representation/negation/Millikan: thesis: negative representations have an undefined sense. ((S) But Millikan admits that negations are representations, unlike identity sentences and existence sentences).
Millikan: as in vague denotations, real values are determined if they occur in true sentences, but they must not be identified by the hearer to meet their intrinsic function.
Opposite/negative sentence/representation/Millikan: thesis: negative sentences whose opposites are normal representative sentences must project positive facts themselves.
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"not"/negation/negative sentence/representation/SaD/Millikan: thesis: the law of the excluded third is inapplicable for simple representative negative sentences. Ex additionsally to the possibility that a predicate and its opposite are true, there is the possibility that the subject of the sentence does not exist. And that's just the way that the sentence has no particular Fregean sense. "P or not-p": only makes sense if "p" has a sense.
Negation: their function is never (in the context of representative sentences) to show that the sentence would not make sense.
sense/Millikan: one can not know a priori if a sentence makes sense.
Negation/representation/Wittgenstein/MillikanVsWittgenstein: his mistake (in the Tractatus) was to believe that if everyone sees that "x" in "x does not exist" has a meaning that the negative sentence is then a negative representation.
Rationalism/Millikan: the rationalist belief that one could know a priori the difference between sense and non-sense.

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Sensation Language/sensation/private language/Wittgenstein/MillikanVsWittgenstein/Millikan: the problem is not quite what Wittgenstein meant. It is not impossible to develop a private language, but one can not develop languages that speak only of what can be seen only once and from a single point of view.

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987