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History: History is the study of the past, especially the people, events, and trends that have shaped our world. This is about the part of the past that was determined and experienced by consciousness. See also Historiography, Culture.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Francis Fukuyama on History - Dictionary of Arguments

Brocker I 805
History/Fukuyama: Fukuyama's thesis of the "end of history" refers to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the East-West conflict or the Cold War.
This endpoint is due to the victory of a liberal-market economical
Brocker I 806
and democratic system of western character through alternative models of order. The title refers to both Hegel's and Marx' thesis of the same name.
History/Hegel: Hegel saw the end of history in the establishment of a liberal state.
History/MarxVsHegel/Marx: the end of history is only reached with the worldwide implementation of communism.
FukuyamaVsMarx: The enforcement of democracy and capitalism is at the end of history.
Democracy/Capitalism/Fukuyama: both have prevailed because they best meet two basic human needs:
Capitalism/Fukuyama: is the economic system that best achieves an efficient allocation of goods under conditions of scarcity.
Democracy/Fukuyama: is the model of order that relatively satisfies the human need for social recognition better than other systems.
Fukuyama does not predict a quick victory for democracy. The struggle for them continues between a so-called post-historical world (in the industrialized countries of the Global North) and a historical world (in the industrializing countries of the Global South). See Democracy/Fukuyama
Brocker I 811
VsFukuyama: His theses were received as not particularly independent. It was pointed out that they already came up under Alexandre Kojève. (1) See also Master-Slave Dialectic/Kojève.
Fukuyama's book seemed too pessimistic to many critics.
VsFukuyama: 1. The empirical validity of his presentation of history has been called into question.
Brocker I 812
FukuyamaVsVs: His thesis is not to be understood descriptive but normative .
2. Fukuyama's interpretation of the historical process as progress was criticized.
3. The same empiricism can also be interpreted differently than it was done by Fukuyama.

1. Shadia B. Drury, „The End of History and the New World Order“, in: International Journal 48/1, 1992/93, p. 80-99.

Anja Jetschke, „Francis Fukuyama, Das Ende der Geschichte“, in: Manfred Brocker (Ed.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

PolFuku I
Francis Fukuyama
The End of History and the Last Man New York 1992

Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018

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