|Distinctions, philosophy: the question here is, among other things, what must be distinguished in objects in order for them to be counted as separate objects. A distinction by specification of properties is only useful if all properties are completely determined. An object, however, does not become a different object by giving different descriptions of it. If levels (e.g., physical and psychological) are to be differentiated, these levels must be unambiguously described. One way of distinguishing is the specification of space-time coordinates. See also identity, temporal identity, similarity, partial identity, overlapping, counting, determinateness, indeterminacy, description levels, steps, four-dimensionalism, world lines._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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Definition exclusivity class/Millikan/(s): ("contrary range", see above I 197) Class of properties that can have a substance or individual, as opposed to others. E.g. melting point, e.g. atomic weight etc. One thing cannot have several melting points or several atomic weights.
Not every thing can have properties from any exclusivity class.
E.g. humans have no atomic weight.
Properties: their identity derives from the constellation of exclusivity classes. E.g. living beings: date of birth, age, weight, etc. but not electrical conductivity etc.
Individual/Object/Property/(s): thus, an object is defined by several dimensions: it cannot have a property from all exclusivity classes, but if it has a property from an exclusivity class, then it cannot have a second property from this exclusivity class.
Correspondingly: if a property of an exclusivity class is present, it is known that 1. all other properties from the same exclusivity class are out of question, 2. that some exclusivity classes are out of question because they cannot belong to the kind of object to which a property from the exclusivity class already established belongs to. E.g. Date of birth and melting point._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987