Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Justification, philosophy: justification is a condition for knowledge which a) is fulfilled or not fulfilled by the explanation of the origin of the information or b) by a logical examination of the argument. For a), theories such as the causal theory of knowledge or reliability theories have been developed. See also verification, examination, verification, proofs, externalism.
Justification in a broader sense is a statement about the occurrence of an action or a choice. See also explanations, ultimate justification, reasons.


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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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J.-J. Rousseau on Justification - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 274
Justification/Rousseau/Höffe: The justification of a state is based on the irritating observation that the human is born free, but is everywhere in chains. On closer examination, this pathetic and incisive introductory thesis (1) contains four state theory assertions.
Freedom: 1) The human "is" born free; freedom, therefore, is neither a mere conception nor an illusion, but a reality. Because this applies to "the" human, it distinguishes humans as humans. Freedom is not merely an epochal concept, characteristic of modernity. Rather, it belongs to the nature of humans, and thus has a greater, anthropological rank.
2) Nevertheless one (...) perceives the opposite everywhere. Although humans are free by birth, therefore by "nature," one discovers a fundamentally different reality: everywhere he lies in chains.
3) [Here appears] irritatingly [the thesis of an] equality of “un-freedom”.
Höffe I 275
If the human shall remain free nevertheless, reality has only the status of potentiality (...).
4) [This status must be] actualized (...). There are two areas of responsibility for this, which Rousseau deals with in two different works, but which he rightly publishes in the same year in a systematic way: education is responsible for the actual freedom of the individual alone (Émile)(2), the community is responsible for the actual freedom of the individual in the political sphere (From the Social Contract)(1).


1. Rousseau, The Social Contract (Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique), 1762
2. Rousseau, Emile, or on Education (Émile ou De l’éducation), 1762


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Rousseau I
J. J. Rousseau
Les Confessions, 1765-1770, publ. 1782-1789
German Edition:
The Confessions 1953

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-05-12
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