|Effects: whether something is an effect of something depends on the separation of two objects or processes as well as the transmission of energy. Whether this relationship comes about is therefore contingent. From a linguistic point of view however, the relationship between cause and effect is a necessary relation, since the concept of the cause is applied only to something which has an effect. See also de re, de dicto, necessity, contingency, causality, effect._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Effect/Bigelow/ Pargetter: one and the same effect could have had different causes. E.g. pregnancy by different men.
Identity/Event/DavidsonVsBigelow: (Davidson 1980) Identity of Events: Thesis: a criterion for identity requires that different causes effect numerically different events.
BigelowVsDavidson: this is wrong, but we do not pursue it further here. But even if he were right, the modal theory of causation ((s) that integrates the necessary and sufficient conditions) would not be saved.
Probability/probabilistic causation/theory/Bigelow/Pargetter. E.g. causing a pregnancy by an almost infertile man - could also be understood as the prevention of parthenogenesis.
(...). - LewisVs: such counterexamples are implausible._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990