# Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Operators, logic: operators are symbols for performing a function, e.g. and; or; if; then; etc.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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I 145
Operator/Bigelow/Pargetter: is something that does not occur in the normal language (everyday language). In contrast, it occurs in equations. For example, the plus sign:
Plus/Plus sign/+/Bigelow/Pargetter: if it stands between two number names (!), (e.g."3" and "5", it makes a new term out of it, namely "(3 + 5)" which in turn refers to a number.
That is, plus makes a new name from two old names.
Everyday language: it is not absolutly necessary to add operators to it. You can also have their tasks done by predicates. For example, instead of + we can accept a predicate R.
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I 146
Operator/Predicate/Bigelow/Pargetter: general: for an n-digit operator, there will be a (n+1)-digit predicate:
O (x1,... xn) = x (n+1),
Ro(x1,…xn, x(n+1)).
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I 145
Operator/Bigelow/Pargetter: For example, plus, plus sign,"+": is applied to number names and provides new number names.
Operator: corresponds semantically to a relation.
Relation/Bigelow/Pargetter: is used differently in semantics: instead of using a relation to determine the semantic value of a sentence, we use it to obtain the referent of a compound referential term.
Relation/syntactic rule:
Ro(x1,… x(n+1)).
Is true iff (x1,... x (n+1) stand in the required relation.
On the other hand,
Operator/syntactic rule:
O (x1,... xn)
refers to x(n+1) iff x1,…x(n+1) stand in the required relation
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I 146
Operator: an n-digit operator could be replaced by a predicate for a relation for a (n+1)-digit relation - but there are different syntactic rules: statement about relation true/false - Statement with operator: refers to - With probability: e.g. P (p v q) = P(p) + P(q) - P(p u q) is the compound expression and not a name, but a sentence - it converts it into a referring statement (this in turn is a name) - +: two-names-one-name-operator - P: sentence-to-name-operator
Operator/Probability/Bigelow/Pargetter: here "P" is an operator that can be applied to composite terms (possibly with "+"). This compound term (example P(p v q) = P(p) + P(q) - P (p u q)
is not a name,...
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I 147
...but a sentence.
Operator/probability: thus P converts a sentence into a referring expression. (This is again a name.)
Probability/Possibility/Necessity/Modality/Bigelow/Pargetter: "necessary" and would be > would be can be reinterpreted as probability operators. For example, "it is likely to grade n that..." Such operators make sentences out of sentences. For example, operator P: for each sentence p
P (p)
it will refer to the number n, iff
it is likely to grade n that p
is true.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-04-25