Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Metaphor: a metaphor is the transmission of a linguistic expression into a different context than that in which it was expected. The expectation results from the frequency of previous uses in certain contexts. Through the transmission an expression, which is actually expected at this place in the speech, is replaced. The condition for replacement is a certain similarity between the characteristics of the old and the new expression required for understanding. The improbability of the appearance of the new expression is a condition for the rhetorical effect of the metaphor.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Item Summary Meta data
Ricoeur II 47
Metaphor/Aristotle/Ricoeur: (...) we read in Aristotle's Poetics that a metaphor is "the application to a thing of a name that belongs to something else, the transference taking place from genus to
species, from species to genus, from species to species, or proportionally.“(1) His Rhetoric takes this definition for granted, simply adding a marginal note concerning the use of comparative images, which are characterized as a special form of the proportional metaphor in which the comparison is explicitly marked by a comparative term such as "is like". Comparison, in other words, is an expanded form of
Ricoeur I 48
metaphor.
Cicero and Quintilian later inverted this model and said that a metaphor is simply an abridged comparison. >Metaphor/Ricoeur.
RicoeurVsAristotle: [We will need a] revision (...) [that] shifts the problem of metaphor from the semantics of the word to the semantics of the sentence.


1. Aristotle, Poetics, XXI, 4.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Ricoeur I
Paul Ricoeur
De L’interprétation. Essai sur Sigmund Freud
German Edition:
Die Interpretation. Ein Versuch über Freud Frankfurt/M. 1999

Ricoeur II
Paul Ricoeur
Interpretation theory: discourse and the surplus of meaning Fort Worth 1976


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-07-05
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