|Values, philosophy: contrary to the notion of economic value, the philosophical concept of value is concerned with the attribution of properties and the characterization of concrete or idealized situations with regard to whether their realization is to be achieved. This is so, because a value can be identified in connection with these situations. See also norms, principles, ethics, morality, utility._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Values/Nozick: four types: 1. Intrinsic value - 2. Instrumental value: is a function or a measure of the intrinsic value and leads to it. (> Expected benefit). Something of instrumental value must not be intrinsically valuable itself.
3. creative value: is a function of the value for something new that is introduced into the world - determinism denies creative values. - Free will: we understand it as it leads to significant differences in value. - Instrumental action: makes a difference, if it would stop, later intrinsic values would not occur. - E.g. brush stroke - The brush stroke itself is not creative.
4. contributors value: what causes the difference. - They are also allowed by determinism. - Determinism does not allow creative values. - Soft determinism: contributing value is sufficient. - Fatalism: Allows no contributing values.
Moral pull/ethics/value/Nozick: my value fixes, what should come from you - Moral Push: Your value fixes, what I should meet with you.
Moral/Nozick: the moral basis is shared by all. So it seems to have nothing interesting to do with you. - It seems to be that we are searching for all values. - Then variant of the categorical imperative: "Do not kill values-seeking egos".
Intrinsic values/ethics/Nozick: intrinsic values occur best with organic unit. - New values occur only in whole, in totalities.
II 562 f.
Values/ethics/Nozick: E.g. assuming there is a possible world without values, but with an organic unity (which is just as good) - Then you could live as if there were values. - This suggests that the existence of values lies in their possibility. - We know what values would be, we just have to bring them to life. - That is not made valuable by something previous - (no circle). - Afterwards the choice is good - then values are not external.
External is: That we gain something through it - internal: connection to our motives.
Then there are also different values: E.g. Nietzsche: revaluation.
Values/facts/connections/Nozick: facts do not contain values - (otherwise naturalistic fallacy). - Connection: some facts (of organic unity) are identical with values. - Explanation: the relation is the organic unity. - Values are organically based on own facts._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994