## Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments | |||

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Variables, philosophy: variables are symbols in statements or logical formulas, in the place of which various, more precise determinations, such as constants or names of objects, can be inserted. In logic, free and bound variables are distinguished. Free variables, which are not bound by a quantifier such as (Ex) or (x), do not form a statement yet but a statement function such as e.g. "Fx" - "Something is F". Numbers or objects are not variable entities. The variability consists in the applicability of more than one possible value. See also free variables, bound variables, constants, individual constants, individual variables, substitution, substitutability, logic, statements, statement function, formulas._____________ Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. | |||

Author | Item | Summary | Meta data |
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HC I 118 Variables/free/bound/Hughes/Cresswell: it s all about occurrences of variables. - Therefore one and the same variable can be in one and the same formula both bound also occur as free. (> mention/use /> word /object) - a token of x can be free and once again bound in the same formula. HC I 120 Free variables/inserting/propositional calculus/Hughes/Cresswell: when evaluating a formula, we must assume that the other possibly occurring free variables are constant. _____________ Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. |
Cr I M. J. Cresswell Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988 Cr II M. J. Cresswell Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984 |

> Counter arguments against **Cresswell**

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-06-20