Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Universals: universals are expressions for what objects may have in common, e.g. a certain color. Examples for universals are redness, roundness, difference, value. The ontological status of universals as something independent of thought - that is, their existence - is controversial. Nevertheless it is undisputed that we form terms for generalization and successfully use them. See also general terms, general, generalization, ontology, existence, conceptual realism, realism, ideas, participation, sortals, conceptualism, nominalism.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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Books on Amazon
I 88
Universals/Strawson: E.g. repeated tone - same chord in various concert halls.
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I 176
Universals/Strawson: Tradition: only universals and particular-universals (E.g. be-married to John) can be predicted - particulars can never be predicted.
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I 215
a) Type-universals: provides classification principle, does require none - E.g. generic names - b) characterizing universals: E.g. verbs, adjectives: deliver classification-principle - only for previously classified particulars - but also particulars themselves provide "principle of summary": E.g. Socrates as well as wisdom -> "attributive binding": (non-relational relation between particulars of different types).
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I 216
Example of characterizing binding between Socrates and the universal death corresponds to the attributive binding between Socrates and his death - see copula.
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I 251
Universals/Quine/Strawson: should only appear as predicates - pro "nominalism" - StrawsonVsQuine: the language terms of this analysis, already presuppose the existence of subject-expressions.
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I 250
Essential feature-universals/essential feature-localizing findings/Strawson: E.g. it rains now - snow falls - here is water - no subject-predicate sentences - here no characterizing-universals, but types of material - also no type-universals - the least to make any empirical statements - introduction with demonstrative - N.B.: does not require particular - E.g. Cat essential feature: a) for the same cat, b) for another cat.
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I 277
Essential-feature-universal/essential feature-localizing/Strawson: the corresponding essential feature-findings actually introduce things - but are not subject terms or subject phrases - "here"/"now" set no limits - (even if they are quantifiable, "there is no point in time ").
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I 279
Things are not introduced by space and time adverbs.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Str I
P.F. Strawson
Einzelding und logisches Subjekt Stuttgart 1972

Str IV
P.F. Strawson
Analyse und Metaphysik München 1994

Str V
P.F. Strawson
Die Grenzen des Sinns Frankfurt 1981


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-20