|Belief, philosophy: attitude of considering a sentence to be true. Unlike religious faith belief is linked to the assessment of probabilities. See also belief, religious belief, propositional attitudes, intensions, probability, belief degrees.|
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Truth/Belief/Knowledge/Nozick: four conditions: (1) p is true - (2) S believes that p - (3) If p were not true, S would not believe p. - (4) If p > S believes that p - improvement: if p were true, S would believe it. - That excludes the following: someone happens to look into a book and therefore believes p, but would otherwise not believe it. - Problem: you can believe something according to one method, and not believe the same thing according to another method.
Problem: Variant: truth or falsity of p affects the choice of method.
Trace: = connection to the fact: is given when a person fulfils (3) and (4). - (3) ensures the trace.
Belief/Truth/Nozick: assuming, there are different methods, and the belief depends on the method. - E.g. The grandmother sees her grandson and believes that he is doing well. - If he were dead, you'd also tell her he was fine. - It does not follow that when she sees him, she does not know that he is doing well. - E.g. A father believes that his son is innocent. - a) out of love - b) because of the evidence - Problem: if the choice of method depends on the truth/falsity - that a method fulfils conditions 1 - 4 is too strong, that it only fulfils one, too weak.
Belief/Knowledge/Disjunction/Conjunction/Probability/Nozick: Conjunction: we can believe it with connection to only one - disjunction: here we need both. - Adjunction: from the premises p, q, we can conclude the conjunction p & q as conclusion.
Probability: here, adjunction may fail, because the conjunction of two premises has a lower probability than each one individually. - Universal Generalization/Existence Generalization: we can believe it without connection to a particular instance.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994