Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Synthesis, philosophy: synthesis is the composition of entities (objects, substances, words, sentences, representations) into a structure which exhibits new qualities opposing these parts. In contrast, the analysis provides the division of a composition into its components. See also analyticity/syntheticity, synthetic, analytical, analysis, emergence.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Item Summary Meta data
Danto I 133
Synthetic a priori/Kant: before any exploration of the world recognizable - on this he builds the mere possibility of doing philosophy at all. - Because it is non-empirical-
Analytically/Kant: E.g. "Every cause has an effect." - Not analytically: "All events have causes." - It does not belong to the meaning of "event" that it has a cause. - But still synthetically a priori: - E.g. "Every event has a cause". - (Variation of Leibniz's law). - It defines what it means for the universe to be intellectually understandable.
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Danto I 211
Experience/representation/continuity/internalism/Danto: continuity is not given in experience. - Otherwise, there would not be the question of whether existence is continuous. - Solution/Kant: mental synthesis.
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Strawson V 26
Synthesis/Kant: the process of production of the unity of experience - there cannot be empirical knowledge of the synthesis - is only obtained through it.
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Stra V 81
Synthesis/Kant: aware, but not how I appear to myself, but only that I am. - Thinking, not watching. - Kant/Strawson: Kant Synthesis is based on differentiation of the capabilities of sensibility and understanding. - StrawsonVs: We try without them.
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Bubner I 100
Judgment/Synthesis/Kant: the unity of the synthetically summarized gives the questionable relationship of concepts the necessary determinateness. This determinateness also bears the reference to the object, which is always included in the judgment as a knowledge claim.
"Synthesis alone is what actually collects the elements into knowledge and unites them to a certain content."
This is achieved by the fact that Kant equals (definition) terms with conceptual contents.
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I 103
Synthesis/Kant: it is originally unified and equally valid for all connections. The reference to the action also seems to answer the question of unity. ((s) because it comes from activity, not from the objects).
It contains three moments:
1. the given manifold
2. the connecting
3. the unit
There is no independent "unit pole", which, so to speak, appears as one of the many elements next to the connecting elements.
The unity is not opposed to the many as an isolated principle.
Therefore idealism speaks of the identity of identity and non-identity.
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I 104
Unity/Synthesis/Idealism/Kant: the place of unity can now be designated, it is the pure action-character of the synthesis. This action-character goes beyond all individual connections, preceds all actual combinations, and is never to be exhausted by so many synthetic acts.
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I 108
Synthesis/Vs Kant: his successors have revealed the weakness that there is no evidence for the highest point of this thought chain.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
I. Kant
I Günter Schulte Kant Einführung (Campus) Frankfurt 1994
Externe Quellen. ZEIT-Artikel 11/02 (Ludger Heidbrink über Rawls)
Volker Gerhard "Die Frucht der Freiheit" Plädoyer für die Stammzellforschung ZEIT 27.11.03
Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005

Strawson I
Peter F. Strawson
Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. London 1959
German Edition:
Einzelding und logisches Subjekt Stuttgart 1972

Strawson II
Peter F. Strawson
"Truth", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Suppl. Vol XXIV, 1950 - dt. P. F. Strawson, "Wahrheit",
In
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk, Frankfurt/M. 1977

Strawson III
Peter F. Strawson
"On Understanding the Structure of One’s Language"
In
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell, Oxford 1976

Strawson IV
Peter F. Strawson
Analysis and Metaphysics. An Introduction to Philosophy, Oxford 1992
German Edition:
Analyse und Metaphysik München 1994

Strawson V
P.F. Strawson
The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. London 1966
German Edition:
Die Grenzen des Sinns Frankfurt 1981

Strawson VI
Peter F Strawson
Grammar and Philosophy in: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Vol 70, 1969/70 pp. 1-20
In
Linguistik und Philosophie, G. Grewendorf/G. Meggle, Frankfurt/M. 1974/1995

Strawson VII
Peter F Strawson
"On Referring", in: Mind 59 (1950)
In
Eigennamen, Ursula Wolf, Frankfurt/M. 1993

Strawson I
Peter F. Strawson
Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. London 1959
German Edition:
Einzelding und logisches Subjekt Stuttgart 1972

Bu I
R. Bubner
Antike Themen und ihre moderne Verwandlung Frankfurt 1992


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-01-24
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