# Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Relations, philosophy: relations are that what can be discovered or produced in objects or states when compared to other objects or other states with regard to a selected property. For example, dimensional differences between objects A and B, which are placed into a linguistic order with the expression "larger" or "smaller" as a link, are determinations of relations which exist between the objects. Identity or equality is not accepted as a relation by most authors. See also space, time, order, categories, reflexivity, symmetry, transitivity.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Bertrand Russell on Relations - Dictionary of Arguments

Geach I 320ff
Relation/Principia Mathematica/Russell/Geach: sentences of the form "Fab" must be treated as individual copies of the form "Ya", i.e. a sentence that says how A is related to B is a particular type of the predication of a.
Quine: E.g. Edith envies everyone who is happier than Edith - Herbert is not happier than anyone who envies Herbert; so we prove that Herbert is not happier than Edith - solution: addition of assumptions: either A "Edith envies Herbert" or B "does not".
Problem: in A "envies Herbert" it is a term, in B "happier than Edith" - we cannot form a predicate with a name as we need it - therefore the relations must be predicative.
Relational propositions make predications about the related things A and B. - Then it makes sense to say that there is something in A which answers the predication, but if we apply the same sentence to B, there is nothing that answers the relation. - It is unnatural to regard the state of "being envied" as a property of Herbert.
Russell I 48
Relation/Russell: D"R: class of all terms that have the relation R to this or that thing. - R"y": "the R of y": "the father of y".

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Russell I
Principia Mathematica Frankfurt 1986

Russell II
B. Russell
The ABC of Relativity, London 1958, 1969
German Edition:
Das ABC der Relativitätstheorie Frankfurt 1989

Russell IV
B. Russell
The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912
German Edition:
Probleme der Philosophie Frankfurt 1967

Russell VI
B. Russell
"The Philosophy of Logical Atomism", in: B. Russell, Logic and KNowledge, ed. R. Ch. Marsh, London 1956, pp. 200-202
German Edition:
Die Philosophie des logischen Atomismus
In
Eigennamen, U. Wolf (Hg), Frankfurt 1993

Russell VII
B. Russell
On the Nature of Truth and Falsehood, in: B. Russell, The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912 - Dt. "Wahrheit und Falschheit"
In
Wahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996

Gea I
P.T. Geach
Logic Matters Oxford 1972

Russell VII
B. Russell
On the Nature of Truth and Falsehood, in: B. Russell, The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912 - Dt. "Wahrheit und Falschheit"
In
Wahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2022-01-28