|Principles, philosophy of science: physical principles are not the same as laws of nature. Rather, laws can be gained from principles or traced back to principles. Examples are the principle of the shortest time, the principle of the smallest effect, the uncertainty principle. See also theories, laws of nature, laws, natural constants._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Principle/Nozick: to show that principles explain a p, involves that they contain it. But that does not prove that p.
Richness/principle/existence/Nozick: thesis: "All possibilities are realized." - This follows from the assumption of the egalitarian theory that the options "something"/"nothing" are equal. - This requires infinitely separate possible worlds because options can be contradictory. - Then you need no explanation why something is or is not, because everything is (somewhere) realized. - Then there is no fact "X instead of Y".
Nothing: one of the unrealized possibilities is also that there is nothing - but that is one among many, not the inegalitary situation that there would be "exclusively nothing".
Consciousness/explanation/evolution theory/Nozick: consciousness allows other types of behavior: - to be guided by principles.
Singer I 220
Principles/Responsibility/Nozick/P. Singer: Nozick makes a sensible distinction between "historical" and "time slices" principles. (R. Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York, 1974):
Definition historical principle/Nozick: in order to understand whether a given distribution of goods is fair or unfair, we have to ask how the distribution came about. We need to know its history. Are the parties entitled to ownership as a result of originally justified acquisition?
Definition two-disc principles/Nozick: consider only the current situations and do not ask about their realization._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015