# Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Classes: identity of classes provided by same elements (extension) - identity of properties by the same predicates (intension).

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Bertrand Russell on Classes - Dictionary of Arguments

I XIV
Classes/Concepts/Gödel: can be construed as real objects, namely as "multiplicities of things" and concepts as properties or relations of things that exist independently of our definitions and constructions - which is just as legitimate as the assumption of physical bodies - they are as necessary for mathematics as they are for physics.
I XVIII
Set/Gödel: realistic: classes exist, circle fault no fault, not even if it is seen constructivistically. But Gödel is a non-constructivist - Russell: classes are only facon de parler, only class names, term, no real classes.
I XVIII
Class names/Russell: eliminate through translation rules.
I XVIII
Classes/Principia Mathematica/PM/Russell/Gödel: Principia do without classes, but only if one assumes the existence of a concept whenever one wants to construct a class - E.g. "red" or "colder" must be regarded as real objects.
I 37
Class/Principia Mathematica/Russell: The class formed by the function jx^ is to be represented by z^ (j z) - E.g. if j x is an equation, z^ (j z) will be the class of its roots - Example if j x means: "x has two legs and no feathers", z^ (j z) will be the class of the humans.
I 120
Class/Principia Mathematica/Russell: incomplete symbol - Function: Complete Symbol - therefore no transitivity when classes are inserted for variables - E.g. x = y . x = z . > . y = z (transitivity) is a propositional function which always applies - but not if we insert a class for x and functions for y and z. - E.g. "z^ (j z) = y ! z^" is not a value of "x = y" - because classes are incomplete symbols.
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Flor III 117
Classes/sets/things/objects/Russell/Flor: sets must not be seen as things - otherwise, we would always have also 2^n things at n things (combinations - i.e. we would have more things than we already have - Solution: Eliminate class symbols from expressions - instead designations for propositional functions - ((s)> Quine: Class Abstraction).

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Russell I
Principia Mathematica Frankfurt 1986

Russell II
B. Russell
The ABC of Relativity, London 1958, 1969
German Edition:
Das ABC der Relativitätstheorie Frankfurt 1989

Russell IV
B. Russell
The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912
German Edition:
Probleme der Philosophie Frankfurt 1967

Russell VI
B. Russell
"The Philosophy of Logical Atomism", in: B. Russell, Logic and KNowledge, ed. R. Ch. Marsh, London 1956, pp. 200-202
German Edition:
Die Philosophie des logischen Atomismus
In
Eigennamen, U. Wolf (Hg), Frankfurt 1993

Russell VII
B. Russell
On the Nature of Truth and Falsehood, in: B. Russell, The Problems of Philosophy, Oxford 1912 - Dt. "Wahrheit und Falschheit"
In
Wahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996

Flor I
Jan Riis Flor
"Gilbert Ryle: Bewusstseinsphilosophie"
In
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A. Hügli/P. Lübcke, Reinbek 1993

Flor II
Jan Riis Flor
"Karl Raimund Popper: Kritischer Rationalismus"
In
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A.Hügli/P.Lübcke, Reinbek 1993

Flor III
J.R. Flor
"Bertrand Russell: Politisches Engagement und logische Analyse"
In
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A. Hügli/P.Lübcke (Hg), Reinbek 1993

Flor IV
Jan Riis Flor
"Thomas S. Kuhn. Entwicklung durch Revolution"
In
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A. Hügli/P. Lübcke, Reinbek 1993

> Counter arguments against Russell
> Counter arguments in relation to Classes

Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-06-20