|Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.|
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).
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Causality / Luhmann: always a matter of the observer - coupling of causes and effects, depending on how the observer forms his interests - there is also causality of omission and a causality of the structure.
Einführung in die Systemtheorie Heidelberg 1992
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997