|Höffe I 64
Community/Aristoteles/Höffe: Aristotle, for example, rejects session fees, although they allow all citizens to participate in the People's Assembly.
Aristotle's basic thesis of a political anthropology is that man is by nature a political being (physei politikon zôon). Towards the beginning of politics it appears in connection with three other assertions: The polis is the perfect community, it is natural, furthermore by nature earlier than the house and the individuals.
HobbesVsAristoteles: Hobbes argues that communities are not only gatherings but also alliances, so they are not created by nature but by art (Leviathan, introduction).
Other authors VsAristotle: According to another, legitimatory objection Aristotle commits the naturalistic fallacy, because from statements about man as he is, he derives how he should live.
Historical objection VsAristoteles: After the historical objection finally man could not be a political living being already because the corresponding communities had arisen late in the history of mankind.
AristotleVsVs/Höffe: The historical objection assumes a static concept of nature.
Höffe I 65
According to his pattern for Physis, the biological processes, Aristotle understands nature dynamically as a development in which three aspects are important: the beginning and motor, the goal already latently present in the beginning and motor, and the sequence, the development process.
"Biological fallacy" VsAristotle/Höffe: Aristotle does not succumb to a further, "biological fallacy", according to which political communities develop "by themselves", without a conscious own contribution of man. For he speaks of someone who brought the polis into being and, like Hobbes later, qualifies him as the "author of greatest goods".
_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016