Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Revolution: A. A political revolution is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization. It typically involves a revolt against the government due to perceived oppression or political incompetence. - B. A scientific revolution is often characterized by the development of new theories and methods, as well as the overthrow of existing ones. See also Th. Kuhn, Theories, Paradigm change, Incommensurability, Theory change, Meaning Change, Method.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Karl Marx on Revolution - Dictionary of Arguments

Habermas IV 499
Revolution/Marx/Habermas: Marx not only wants to show how the systemically independent process of self-exploitation of capital is experienced from the lifeworld perspective of wage workers as continuous exploitation, how the subsumption of labour power under the commodity form pulls workers out of their traditional living conditions, first uproots corporative ways of existence plebeianly and then proletarianises them.
, >Labor Power/Marx, >Alienation/Marx, >Commodity.
Rather, Marx drafts a practical-political perspective of action which, in its prerequisites, is exactly contrary to the perspective tacitly adopted by system functionalism. Systems theory presupposes that the process of instrumentalizing the lifeworld has already come to a conclusion.
Habermas IV 500
In contrast, Marx envisages a future state in which the objective appearance of the capital has melted away and the world held captive under the dictates of value law has been returned to its spontaneity. He foresees the formation of a movement that seizes political power only to revolutionize society; together with private ownership of means of production, it will destroy the institutional foundations of the medium through which the capitalist economy has been differentiated and bring the systemically independent process of economic growth back into the horizon of the lifeworld.
Terminology/Marx: In Marx, the system and lifeworld appear under the metaphors of the "realm of necessity" and the "realm of freedom".
WeberVsMarx/Habermas: compared to Marx's revolutionary expectations that theoretical criticism only has to solve the magic that rests on the work that has become abstract, Weber is proved right: "that the abolition of private capitalism...would by no means mean a break-up of the steel housing of modern industrial work...".(1)
>M. Weber.
HabermasVsMarx: his error can be traced back to the dialectical link between system and environment analysis, which (...) does not allow a separation between the (...)
Habermas IV 501
level of system differentiation and the class-specific forms of its institutionalization.
>Lifeworld, >Systems Theory.
- - -
Brocker I 203
Permanent Revolution/Marx: Marx already used the term "permanent revolution" for the first time in his paper "On the Jewish Question", 1844(4), where he declared the Jacobin rule in the French Revolution as a violent attempt to establish the political superstructure of bourgeois society. This can only be achieved by declaring the revolution permanent. The political drama therefore ends just as necessarily with the restoration of religion, private property, all elements of bourgeois society, as the war ends with peace.(2)
>Judaism, >French Revolution, >Bourgeoisie.
This had nothing to do with the idea of a permanent revolution to bring the proletariat to power.
Permanent Revolution/Marx/Engels: later it is about making the revolution permanent and carrying it to all countries until the competition of the proletarians in these countries has stopped.(3)

1.M. Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, hrsg. v. J. Winckelmann, Köln 1964
2. Marx, Karl, »Zur Judenfrage« [1844], in: ders./Friedrich Engels, Werke, Berlin [DDR] 1956, Bd. 1, 347-377.
3. Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, »Ansprache der Zentralbehörde an den Bund vom März 1850«, in: Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels, Werke, Berlin [DDR] 1960, Bd. 7, 244-254.
4. Karl Marx: Zur Judenfrage. In: Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, Paris 1844, S. 182 ff.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Marx I
Karl Marx
Das Kapital, Kritik der politische Ökonomie Berlin 1957

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018

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