# Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Covariance: Covariance in physics is a measure of the statistical relationship between two or more physical quantities. It can be used to describe how two quantities are related to each other in space, time, or both. For example, the covariance of the position and momentum of a particle can be used to describe how the particle's momentum changes as its position changes. See also Measurements, Observation.
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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Albert Einstein on Covariance - Dictionary of Arguments

Kanitscheider I 169
Covariance/Einstein: old: the physical laws always had to be related to an existing coordinate system. (Even in the special theory of relativity (SR), its laws also only apply in inertial systems and in reference systems that result from Lorentz transformation.
Accordingly, the SR is Lorentz covariant but not generally covariant.
Old: the validity of laws was limited to local inertial systems and always had to be supplemented by fictitious forces such as the Coriolis force and centrifugal force in accelerated systems.
New: Covariance: here laws can be formulated in any coordinate system, solution by tensors.
The actual essence of the covariance principle is to choose the law of gravitation in such a way that no primordial (original) geometry is assumed for the space.
Covariance eliminates the frame of reference!
Reference system: There is no reference system with which one could transform away relative accelerations.
>Relativity theory.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Einstein, A.
Kanitsch I
B. Kanitscheider
Kosmologie Stuttgart 1991

Kanitsch II
B. Kanitscheider
Im Innern der Natur Darmstadt 1996

> Counter arguments against Einstein
> Counter arguments in relation to Covariance