Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Behavior: Observable changes in the describable state of living organisms that are initiated by these organisms themselves or that represent a reaction to external stimuli where there is a certain choice of reaction. Accompanying thoughts are not part of behavior, as otherwise an arbitrary extension of the frame of reference would make it impossible to determine behavior. See also Actions, Behaviorism, Mentalism, Naturalism, Observation, Method, Frame theories.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Konrad Lorenz on Behavior - Dictionary of Arguments

Page numbers here from the German edition: K. Lorenz, Das sogenannte Böse Wien, 1963

II 34
Aggression/Lorenz: two types:
A) between different species
B) within one species. (Subject of this book).
II 36
"Mobbing"/"hate on"/Lorenz: crows, and other birds "hate on" the owl they have discovered by day: (s) They show their fellow-species by gestures where the enemy is.
For example a jay follows the fox screeching through the forest.
This is a passing on of a non-innate knowledge.
II 47
Singing/Birds/Lorenz: Birds share, among others things, also the age.
II 58
Aggression/Lorenz: Thesis: More than other properties, the aggressive behavior can be exaggerated by its pernicious effect in the grotesque and unsuitable.
For us, it is the inheritance of the intraspecific selection, which has lasted over decades.
The evil introspecific selection must be taken.
II 72
Stimulus/Reaction/Behavior/Lorenz: Experiments show that (in captivity) the withdrawal of stimuli decreases the threshold for triggering reactions. At the end, a room corner is performed courtship to because it is the only visual point of view.
II 81
Aggression/Evolution/Lorenz: The reorientation of the attack is probably the most ingenious source that was created by the species change, in order to divert aggression into harmless pathways.
II 91
Behavior/ritualization/Lorenz: e.g. in the insect world, it may be the case that behavior is even be embodied. E.g. robbery or assassination: the suitor hands over a prey to the beloved of the right size so that he can have sexual intercourse with the female during her eating the prey without being eaten himself.
II 92
Later generations react only to a corresponding symbol. Congenital understanding.
II 93
Behavior/animal/ritualization/Lorenz: it would be a mistake to call ritualized "rushing" an "expression" of love "or the affiliation of the female to the spouse.
The independent instinctual movement is not a by-product, not an epiphenomenon of the tie that holds the animals together, but it is itself this tie.
A completely autonomous, new instinct.
II 103
Rite/behavior/animal/Lorenz: the most important function is the active drive to social behavior.
II 104
New function: communication.
II 105
The unification of the variable variety of possibilities of action into a single rigid sequence reduces the danger of ambiguity in the communication.
II 108
"Good manners" are those that characterize their own group.
II 109
Any deviation causes aggression, so the group is forced to act in a unified way.
II 123
Behavioral research/Lorenz: in the heroic time of comparative behavioral research, it was thought that only one instinct dominated this, but exclusively, one animal.
J. HuxleyVs: Human and animal are like a ship commanded by many captains.
Animals have this agreement that only one of them can enter the command bridge.
Gould I 105
Lorenz's thesis: we do not react to wholenesses or shapes, but to a group of special mechanisms that act as triggers. (Lorenz, 1950 "Ganzheit und Teil") It is well known that birds, in particular, react to abstract features and not to shapes.
Gould VIII 34
Aggression/Lorenz: (The so-called Evil): Thesis: Aggression is a species-preserving function. Thus only the most suitable individuals are propagated.
DawkinsVsLorenz: Prime example for a circular reasoning. It is also contrary to Darwinism, which he does not seem to have noticed.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Lorenz I
K. Lorenz
Das sogenannte Böse Wien 1963

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

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