Psychology Dictionary of Arguments

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Tautology, philosophy: A tautology is a statement that is constructed in such a way that it cannot be wrong, because its elements are repeated either affirmatively or negatively, or an exhaustive enumeration of possibilities is spread between which no decision is made. For example, A = A; If A, then A; A or non-A. Tautologies are not informative. See also certainty, information, knowledge, logic, validity, universality, contradiction, truth values, interpretation.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Benson Mates on Tautologies - Dictionary of Arguments

I 116
Tautologies/Mates: Tautologies depend on the meaning of "and", "not", " if .... then ", etc. , but not the meaning of " all ", " some ", " people ", " mortal" , etc. -
((s) I.e. only from the logical constants, not from the quantifiers).
>Logical constants
, >Quantifiers, >Quantification.
On the other hand: analyticity of a syllogism depends on the meaning of "all" , "some".
>Analyticity/Syntheticity, >Synthetic, >Syllogisms.
I 117
Tautology/Mates : can not be an atomic statement - because this also may not be valid.
I 119
There are valid statements that are not to be tautological:
E.g. "(x ) Fx > Fa "
There are inferences that are not tautological. - In inferences only tautological inferences are needed.
>Derivation, >Derivability.
Def tautology: valid statement whose validity does not depend on the quantifiers.
I 119
Tautology/propositional calculus/Mates : since all statements of p.c. (propositional calculus) are quantifier-free, they are tautological, if they are valid.
>Propositional calculus.
That carries over to their inserting results. - There is still no decision procedure, if there is tautology.
I 127
A tautology is the same as a consequence of any set of propositions.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Mate I
B. Mates
Elementare Logik Göttingen 1969

Mate II
B. Mates
Skeptical Essays Chicago 1981

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> Counter arguments against Mates
> Counter arguments in relation to Tautologies

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