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Systems, philosophy of science: systems are compilations of rules for the formation of statements on a previously defined subject domain. Apart from the - usually recursive - rules for the combination of expressions or signs, the specification of the vocabulary or sign set of the system is also required. See also axioms, axiom systems, theories, strength of theories, expressiveness, rules, order, recursion, models, structure, system theory.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Hans-Georg Gadamer on Systems - Dictionary of Arguments

I 179 Anmerkung
System/Conceptual History/Gadamer: The origin of the concept of system is obviously based on the same theological situation as that of hermeneutics. For this the investigation of O.Ritschl(1) is extremely instructive. It shows that the Reformation theology, because it no longer wanted to be an encyclopaedic processing of the dogmatic tradition, but strove to reorganize the Christian doctrine from decisive passages of the Bible (loci communes), urged towards systematics, a statement that is doubly instructive when one considers the later appearance of the term "system" in the philosophy of the 17th century. There, too, something new had broken into the traditional structure of scholastic overall science: the new natural science. This new element required philosophy to become systematic, i.e. to harmonize the old and the new.
The concept of system, which since then has been a methodically indispensable requisite of philosophy
has therefore its historical roots in the separation of philosophy and science in the beginning modern times, and it only seemed to be a natural demand on philosophy because this separation of philosophy and science has since then been a constant task for philosophy. [On the history of the word: The starting point is Epinomis 991 e. Thus it seems to be transferred from the numerical and tonal relationships to the celestial order (cf. St. V. fr. II, 168,11 pass.)
One may also think of Heraclit's concept of åpjovía (VS 12 B 54): the dissonances appear "overcome" in the harmonic intervals. That what falls apart is unified, is encountered in the astronomical as well as in the philosophical concept of "system"].

1. O.Ritschl, System und systematische Methode in der Geschichte des wissenschaftlichen
Sprachgebrauchs und in der philosophischen Methodologie, Bonn 1906

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gadamer I
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010

Gadamer II
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
German Edition:
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977

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