Jurisprudence on Discrimination - Dictionary of Arguments
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Discrimination/bias/Jurisprudence/Nadler/Mueller: Race can influence legally relevant decisions in many situations, from policing decisions to final sentencing judgments.
Race/jurisprudence: At the same time, law often refuses to define the concept of race, leading to confusion and inconsistency (Peery, 2011)(1). It is worth noting that many findings of racially motivated legal decision-making are generally uncorrelated with measures of explicit racial bias - "the kinds of bias that people knowingly - sometimes openly - embrace" (Rachlinski et al., 2009)(2).
Implicit bias: Implicit bias (Greenwald and Krieger, 2006(3); Kang et al., 2012(4)) is a more insidious issue than explicit bias. Attitudes and stereotypes are implicit when they are not consciously accessible through introspection (Kang et al., 2012)(4). Both laypersons and judges hold implicit racial biases, and sometimes these biases can influence their judgment (Rachlinski et al., 2009)(2).
Implicit Association Test (IAT): Implicit bias has been measured in a variety of ways (Jost, Federico, and Napier, 2009)(5), and one commonly used measure is the Implicit Association Test (IAT), which assesses the strength of a person's association between two concepts using response times; in a classic version, Black and White faces are paired with positively valenced and negatively valenced words.
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Results suggest a pervasive implicit favoritism for one's own groups and socially dominant groups (Lane, Kang, and Banaji, 2007)(6). Numerous studies suggest that IAT performance is a better predictor of behavior in socially sensitive situations than explicit racism measures (see Greenwald et al., 2009(7) for a meta-analysis; but see Oswald et al., 2013(8) for a dissenting view).
Race: In other studies, people with higher implicit bias judged ambiguous actions by a Black person more negatively (Rudman and Lee, 2002)(9), and were quicker to detect hostility on Black faces, but not White faces (Hugenberg and Bodenhausen, 2003). More recently, a Guilty/Not Guilty IAT has been developed, and implicit associations between Black and guilty have been shown to predict evaluation of evidence, though not judgments of guilt (Levinson, Cai, and Young, 2010)(11). >Criminal Justice/Social Psychology.
1. Peery, D. (2011). "Colorblind Ideal in a Race-Conscious Reality: The Case for a New Legal
Ideal for Race Relations." Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy 6:473.
2. Rachlinski, J. J., S. L. Johnson, A. J. Wistrich, and C. Guthrie (2009). "Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges." Notre Dame Law Review 84: 1 195.
3. Greenwald, A. G. and L. H. Krieger (2006). "Implicit Bias: Scientific Foundations." California Law Review doi:10.2307/20439056.
4. Kang, J., M. Bennett, D. Carbado, and P. Casey (2012). "Implicit Bias in the Courtroom." UCLA Law Review 59: 1 124.
5. Jost, J. T., C. M. Federico, andJ. L. Napier (2009). "Political Ideology: Its Structure, Functions, and Elective Affnities." Annual Review of Psychology 60: 307—337. doi:10.1146/
6. Lane, K. A., J. Kang, and M. R. Banaji (2007). "Implicit Social Cognition and Law." Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3(1): 427—451. doi:10.1146/annurev.lawsoc- sci.3.081806.112748.
7. Greenwald, A. G., T. Andrew, E. L. Uhlmann, and M. R. Banaji (2009). "Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: Ill. Meta-analysis of Predictive Validity." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97(1): 17—41. doi:10.1037/a0015575.
8. Oswald, F. L., G. Mitchell, H. Blanton, J. Jaccard, and P. E. Tetlock (2013). "Predicting Ethnic and Racial Discrimination: A Meta-analysis of IAT Criterion Studies." Journal of Personality and social Psychlogy 105(2): 171-192. doi:10.1037/a0032734.
9. Rudman, L. A. and M. R. Lee (2002). "Implicit and Explicit Consequences of Exposure to Violent and Misogynous Rap Music." Group Processes and Intergroup Relations 5(2): 133-150. doi:10.1177/1368430202005002541.
10. Hugenberg, K. and G. V. Bodenhausen (2003). "Facing Prejudice: Implicit Prejudice and the
Perception of Facial Threat." Psychological Science 14(6):640-643.
11. Levinson, J. D., H. Cai, and D. Young (2010). "Guilty by Implicit Racial Bias: The Guilty/Not
Guilty Implicit Association Test." Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 8: 187.
Nadler, Janice and Pam A. Mueller. „Social Psychology and the Law“. In: Parisi, Francesco (ed) (2017). The Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics. Vol 1: Methodology and Concepts. NY: Oxford University Press_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Francesco Parisi (Ed)
The Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics: Volume 1: Methodology and Concepts New York 2017