|Slater I 31
Conditioning/Behaviorism: Since the influential work of Rachman (1991)(1) we now know that that the associative acquisition of emotional reactions in humans is not only fueled by aversive conditioning, but also by modeling (i.e., observing other people’s emotional reactions to a stimulus or situation) or negative information transmission (i.e., hearing or reading that a stimulus or situation might be dangerous or have another negative connotation). Current theories emphasize the role of direct (conditioning) and indirect (modeling and negative information transmission) learning experiences in the etiology of extreme emotional reactions such as phobias (e.g., Muris, Merckelbach, De Jong, & Ollendick, 2002)(2).
1. Rachman, S. J. (1991). Neo-conditioning and the classic theory of fear acquisition. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 155–173.
2. Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., De Jong, P. J., & Ollendick, T. H. (2002). The aetiology of specific fears and phobias in children: A critique of the non-associative account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 185–195
Thomas H. Ollendick, Thomas M. Sherman, Peter Muris, and Neville J. King, “Conditioned Emotional Reactions. Beyond Watson and Rayner’s Little Albert”, in: Alan M. Slater and Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012