Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 8 entries.
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Entry
Reference
Art Eco I 48
Science/Art/Eco: in the open work of art you can see the resonance of some tendencies in modern science: the concept of the field comes from physics: a new understanding of the relationship between cause and effect: more complex interaction of forces. There is a departure from a static and syllogistic view of order. Indefinite relation, complementarity. ---
I 55
Reception/Eco: the work of art offers the interpreter a work to be completed. ---
I 105
Openness and disorder are relative terms! Something is ordered in comparison to a previous disorder. ---
I 138
Definition openness of the first degree: integration and knowledge mechanisms are characteristic for every process of knowledge. ---
I 139
Definition second-degree openness: grasping that constantly open process, it allows us to perceive new contours and new possibilities for a form. ---
I 149
Openness: the recipient has freedom of choice. ---
I 160
Art/Science/Eco: certain structures in art appear as epistemological metaphors, as structural decisions of a diffuse theoretical consciousness (not of a particular theory, but cultural belief). Mirroring certain achievements of modern scientific methodology in categories of uncertainty, statistical distribution. Bivalent logic, causality and the principle of the excluded middle are called into question.
---
I 163
Art/Science/Cubism: parallels to non-Euclidean geometry. Parallel between Hilbert's attempts to axiomatize geometry and neoplasticism and constructivism. ---
I 165
Eco thesis: in a world where the discontinuity of phenomena has called into question the possibility of a unified and definitive view of the world, open art shows us a way of seeing and recognizing this world and of integrating our sensitivity. This discontinuity is not narrated but it is art. ((s)VsEco: strongly affirmative attitude: that it is about recognizing the world.) ---
I 260
Alienation/Art/Eco: Epigones have become alienated from a habit that now fixes them without allowing them to move in an original and free way.

Eco I
U. Eco
Opera aperta, Milano 1962, 1967
German Edition:
Das offene Kunstwerk Frankfurt/M. 1977

Eco II
U, Eco
La struttura assente, Milano 1968
German Edition:
Einführung in die Semiotik München 1972

Exchange Sandel Mause I 180
Exchange/Sandel: SandelVsEconomization of areas of life: 1. Market exchange violates fairness, or is associated with coercion. Market Exchange/Sandel: 2. Market exchange leads to degradation or corruption of the parties. The moral ideal here is the immaterial meaning of goods - their dignity. Market exchange damages, displaces or destroys valuable attitudes, standards or obligations in such cases. The only way to remedy this situation is not to introduce fair negotiating conditions, but to refrain from market exchange itself. (1)


1. Michael Sandel, Was man für Geld nicht kaufen kann: Die moralischen Grenzen des Marktes. Berlin 2012. S. 138-140

Sand I
Michael Sandel
The Procedural Republic and the Unencumbered Self 1984


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Law Buchanan Brocker I 567
Law/Contracts/Contract Theory/Buchanan: Law transforms only the uneven distribution that has arisen naturally into a legally fixed uneven distribution. That this transformation is taking place at all is due to the fact that those who are worse off in natural distribution also benefit from disarmament and the establishment of law. See Contract Theory/Buchanan, Equilibrium/Buchanan. Problem: there is still the danger of instability, because it is better for everyone to live in a contractual state and not in a pre-contractual one - nevertheless one profits from breaches of contract! And in two ways: a) you enjoy the contractual advantages and b) you benefit from a breach of the law.
Solution/Buchanan: there must be a superordinate instance. The existence of the state owes its existence to this necessity. See Constitution/Buchanan.
Brocker I 571
Finally, Buchanan is even considering the possibility of a slavery contract (1) (see Slavery/Buchanan). KerstingVsBuchanan/KerstingVsEconomism: This passage shows the immorality of economism. Economistic reductionism drives out the traditional normative meaning of the traditional concepts of the moral world. To speak of a slave's right to be left alive would have been condemned as intolerable cynicism. Economism is a twin brother of scientism.
Buchanan's conceptual framework for the initial state of a philosophical theory of justification is so large and far-reaching that it itself can encompass the negation of all moral interpersonal relationships, apartheid and slavery, as constitutional-contractualist states. But then the question arises as to whether such a radically naturalized scenery can be suitable for the generation of social and political principles of assessment and design that can be accepted.
If rights are the result of contractual agreement under realistic conditions - and an agreement generally only comes about if everyone hopes it will benefit - then contractual establishment of rights will only be achieved when the use of force becomes uneconomical, when blackmailing, intimidation and murder cost too much. But that only means that the law seals inequalities constituted by violence. It is characteristic of Buchanan's conception that the traditional opposition between violence and law has lost its leading function.


1. James M. Buchanan, The Limits of Liberty. Between Anarchy and Leviathan, Chicago/London 1975. Dt.: James M. Buchanan, Die Grenzen der Freiheit. Zwischen Anarchie und Leviathan, Tübingen 1984.


Wolfgang Kersting, „James M. Buchanan, Die Grenzen der Freiheit“ in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

EconBuchan I
James M. Buchanan
Politics as Public Choice Carmel, IN 2000


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Literature Eco I 32
Bible/Allegory/Middle Ages/Holy Scripture/Hermeneutics/Eco: the Holy Scripture could be interpreted in three different ways: E.g. Jacob in Egypt: literally: the children of Israel leave Egypt
1. Allegory: our redemption through Christ
2. morally: turning the soul of sorrow and misery into a state of grace.
3. anagogical: Exit of the holy soul from the bondage of this corruption to freedom of eternal glory.
---
I 36
Novalis/Eco: pure evocative power of poetry as an art of indeterminate sense and imprecise meaning. ---
I 37
Mallarmé: "It must be avoided that a single sense is imposed". ---
I 200
Drama/Tragedy/Eco: Terminology: the deeper layers are called "action". Action: unambiguous, action: ambiguous, inexhaustible. ---
I 206
Literature/Art/Life/Eco: it is only natural that life is more like the Ulysses than the three musketeers. Nevertheless, we are all more inclined to think it in the categories of the three musketeers than in those of Ulysses. Or rather: I can only remember and judge life when I think of it as a traditional novel. ---
I 258
Rhyme: First stimulates invention, pleasant sound structure,... ---
I 259
..later, the rhyme will make us a prisoner. The rhyme gives birth to the rhyming lexicon, which at first becomes the repertoire of words to be rhymed, but later becomes the repertoire of the already rhymed. > alienation. ---
Eco I passim
Openness/Literature: Eco speaks of complexity and inaccuracy of the relationships of the figures. ((s) Think form: inaccuracy as an objective property. ---
I 290
Robbe Grillet/Nouveau novel: "The world is neither meaningful nor absurd: it is... around us, things are there. Its surface is clean and smooth, untouched, but without ambiguous shine and transparency. First the objects and gestures should prove their existence through their presence. Being here should prevail over any explanatory theory that wanted to lock it up. Sense and absurdity are not objective qualities! ((s) Robbe-GrilletVsEco.) ---
I 282/283
CalvinoVsRobbe Grillet: warned against the flooding and disturbing presence of a "sea of objectivity". Talking about this sea in seemingly objective terms means a return of "objectivity" to a human universe. ---
I 284
Robbe Grillet: would like to achieve a view that is not distorted by an interest in things through his narrative technique. (according to Eco). Robbe Grillet/Eco: Against him, one can perhaps interpret it this way: the narrator does not define things as alien and metaphysical entities in no relation to us.
On the contrary, he determines a special kind of relationship between us and the things, a mode of "intentioning" the things that are unique to us. Instead of letting things be simple, he takes them to the area of a design operation that becomes a judgement on them. (I 284)
(Not Robbe Grillet's own interpretation).
---
I 285
EcoVsRobbe Grillet: he is right when he thinks that the narrative structure must remain below the different interpretations. He is wrong when he believes that it is deprived of them because it is foreign to them. It is not a foreign for them, but rather the sentence function of a number of situations in which we find ourselves set up in a language that had already spoken so much, that it is. ---
I 286
Sartre: was confused that the representatives of the Nouveau novel side by side with him signed politically committed manifestos. ---
I 290
Balzac: Marx and Engels: were reactionary and legitimistically, has basically no interest in certain problems and agreed with the world in which he lived. Eco: he has, however, clarified their connections so clearly that he, at least in his work, did not remain their prisoner. ---
I 291
Modern literature/Eco: can no longer analyze the world in such a way that it turns to a subject. Rather, it changes the disposition of a certain structural articulation of the subject. By turning articulation into a subject and dissolving the actual content of the work. ---
II 148 Footnote
Literature/Rhyme/Jakobson/Eco: Jakobson masterfully analyses the rhyme as a relational factor, where the equivalence of the sound - projects onto the sequence as his constituent principle - inevitably implies semantic equivalence. (R. Jakobson, "Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics"; Style in Language, ed. T. A. Seboek, (1960).).

Eco I
U. Eco
Opera aperta, Milano 1962, 1967
German Edition:
Das offene Kunstwerk Frankfurt/M. 1977

Eco II
U, Eco
La struttura assente, Milano 1968
German Edition:
Einführung in die Semiotik München 1972

Markets Sandel Mause I 180f
Markets/Sandel: Markets dominate our lives like never before - and in the course of that also our associated values. This is not the result of a conscious decision, but of a long-lasting, hardly noticeable process. No other organisational principle has produced so much prosperity and abundance in the production and distribution of goods. However, this also influences people's values.
Economy/Sandel: Economy has increasingly become a "ruling science". (1)
For example, you can buy a place at a prestigious university, for example, you can negotiate conditions of imprisonment for money payments, or you can have surrogate mothers carry out embryos for money.
SandelVsSubsidiarity: we have ventured too much subsidiarity if the following happens:
1. Markets lead to undesired allocations: E.g. too high prices: e.g. tickets for spiritual events fall into the hands of wealthy non-believers.
2. Markets change the characteristics of goods: e.g. the preferential sale of tickets for the American Congress instead of queuing to buy a ticket.
For example, the quality of blood donations changes because people regularly earn money with it, e.g. people pay their own children to mow the lawn, e.g.academic titles can be acquired by paying money, as can voters' votes.
3. Market transactions can also be bad in themselves when it comes to the exchange of child prostitution services, transplantation organs or human egg cells. See (2).
SandelVsEconomization of areas of life: 1. Market exchange violates fairness, or is associated with coercion.
Market Exchange/Sandel: 2. Market exchange leads to degradation or corruption of the parties. The moral ideal here is the immaterial meaning of goods - their dignity. Market exchange damages, displaces or destroys valuable attitudes, standards or obligations in such cases. The only way to remedy this situation is not to introduce fair negotiating conditions, but to refrain from the market exchange itself.


1. Michael Sandel, Was man für Geld nicht kaufen kann: Die moralischen Grenzen des Marktes. Berlin 2012. S. 12.
2. Timothy Besley, What’s the good of the market? An essay on Michael Sandel’s „What Money Can’t Buy“. Journal of Economic Literature 51, (2), 2013, S.478– 495.

Sand I
Michael Sandel
The Procedural Republic and the Unencumbered Self 1984


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Political Parties Lenin Brocker I 33
Political Parties/Lenin: At the centre of What is to be done? is the creation of a disciplined organization of a revolutionary party under the conditions of the autocratic Russia. (1) Russia: as the Bolshevik faction and party that gave birth to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, it made history not only in its own country. Far beyond the Soviet Union, for decades the Leninist party shaped the communist party states of Eastern European people's democracies as well as Asian and Latin American, party and state-mixing systems.
Brocker I 34
Economists: this is what social democratic groups were called, which were limited to economic wage struggles. LeninVsEconomism.
Brocker I 35
Lenin's thesis: For a tightly organized party "people should be trained to devote not only their free evenings to the revolution, but their entire lives". (2)

1.N. Lenin, Čto delat’?, Stuttgart 1902. Dt.: Wladimir I. Lenin, Was tun? Brennende Fragen unserer Bewegung, in: ders., Ausgewählte Werke in sechs Bänden, Bd. 1, Berlin (Ost) 121986, 333-541 (zuerst: Wien 1932).
2. Lenin, W. I., »Die dringendsten Aufgaben unserer Bewegung«, in: ders., Ausgewählte Werke in sechs Bänden, Bd. 1, Berlin 1986 (a), S. 315.


Jutta Scherrer, Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin, Was tun?, (1902) in: Brocker, Manfred, Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018.

Lenin I
Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin
Die dringendsten Aufgaben unserer Bewegung Berlin 1986


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Politics Lenin Brocker I 38
Politics/LeninVsEconomism/Lenin: Lenin polemicizes against the union-oriented labor movements of Rabocere Delo and Rabocaja Mysl' and other spontaneously emerged directions of the labor movement. LeninVsTrade Unionism. (1) Instead, the workers' struggle should be directed against any violence and oppression emanating from the government. Political agitation alone is capable of forming the political consciousness and revolutionary activity of the masses.


1. Lenin, W. I., »Die dringendsten Aufgaben unserer Bewegung«, in: ders., Ausgewählte Werke in sechs Bänden, Bd. 1, Berlin 1986 (a) S. 376.


Jutta Scherrer, Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin, Was tun?, (1902) in: Brocker, Manfred, Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018.

Lenin I
Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin
Die dringendsten Aufgaben unserer Bewegung Berlin 1986


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Rational Choice Political Economy Mause I 62
Rational decisions/rational choice/VsEconomic Theory/VsPolitical Science/Political Economy: Economically oriented political science was confronted with problems because it initially assumed that the actors had complete information. Problem: the empirical significance of this approach is limited, since due to the axiomatics (individuals act rationally) every action must necessarily provide the greatest benefit to an actor. (1) (2)


1. D. P. Green, I. Shapiro, Pathologies of rational-choice theory. A critique of applications in political science. New Haven 1994
2. J. S. Coleman,Th.J. Fararo (Eds) Rational-choice theory. Advocacy and critique. Newbury Park 1992.


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018