Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 7 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Causality Bryant Slater I 133
Causality/dyslexia/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1): in order to decide whether the connection between rhyming and alliteration skills and progress in reading was causal, two research methods need[ed] to be combined. A longitudinal approach, in which a large sample of children was followed over time to see whether early rhyme and alliteration skills could determine progress in reading and spelling, had to be combined with a training study. If sound categorization was indeed important for learning to read and to spell, then children who received intensive training in sound categorization should show gains in reading and spelling in comparison to children who did not receive such training. >Reading acquisition/Bradley/Bryant. This combination hat not been used in studies of reading development before.
Slater I 135
Bradley and Bryant (1983) concluded that they had shown a causal link between categorizing sounds and learning to read. They speculated that experiences at home, before the children went to school, might underlie individual differences in rhyming and alliteration skills at school entry.
Slater I 139/140
Causality/VsBradley/VsBryant: it is the question whether Bradley and Bryant’s (1983)(1) study really established a causal connection between categorizing sounds and learning to read. Even though the study used only pre-reading children (as measured by the Schonell standardized test), some critics have argued that most children who grow up in literate Western societies have some letter knowledge before entering school, for example being able to print their own name and being aware of popular logos and printed signs (e.g., Castles & Coltheart, 2004)(2).

1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.



Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Dyslexia Bryant Slater I 133
Dyslexia/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1): in order to decide whether the connection between rhyming and alliteration skills and progress in reading was causal, two research methods need[ed] to be combined. A longitudinal approach, in which a large sample of children was followed over time to see whether early rhyme and alliteration skills could determine progress in reading and spelling, had to be combined with a training study. If sound categorization was indeed important for learning to read and to spell, then children who received intensive training in sound categorization should show gains in reading and spelling in comparison to children who did not receive such training. >Reading acquisition/Bradley/Bryant. This combination hat not been used in studies of reading development before.
Slater I 135
Bradley and Bryant (1983) concluded that they had shown a causal link between categorizing sounds and learning to read. They speculated that experiences at home, before the children went to school, might underlie individual differences in rhyming and alliteration skills at school entry.
Slater I 139/140
Causality/VsBradley/VsBryant: it is the question whether Bradley and Bryant’s (1983)(1) study really established a causal connection between categorizing sounds and learning to read. Even though the study used only pre-reading children (as measured by the Schonell standardized test), some critics have argued that most children who grow up in literate Western societies have some letter knowledge before entering school, for example being able to print their own name and being aware of popular logos and printed signs (e.g., Castles & Coltheart, 2004)(2).

1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111.



Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Idealism Quine II 221
Idealism/QuineVsBradley, QuineVsIdealism: all of Bradley’s relations are real - there is no recourse: Definition from outside to inside - Basic: use of two-place predicates is no reference to an ever so real relation (otherwise abstract singular terms or bound variables).

Quine I
W.V.O. Quine
Word and Object, Cambridge/MA 1960
German Edition:
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

Quine II
W.V.O. Quine
Theories and Things, Cambridge/MA 1986
German Edition:
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

Quine III
W.V.O. Quine
Methods of Logic, 4th edition Cambridge/MA 1982
German Edition:
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

Quine V
W.V.O. Quine
The Roots of Reference, La Salle/Illinois 1974
German Edition:
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

Quine VI
W.V.O. Quine
Pursuit of Truth, Cambridge/MA 1992
German Edition:
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

Quine VII
W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

Quine VII (a)
W. V. A. Quine
On what there is
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (b)
W. V. A. Quine
Two dogmas of empiricism
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (c)
W. V. A. Quine
The problem of meaning in linguistics
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (d)
W. V. A. Quine
Identity, ostension and hypostasis
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (e)
W. V. A. Quine
New foundations for mathematical logic
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (f)
W. V. A. Quine
Logic and the reification of universals
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (g)
W. V. A. Quine
Notes on the theory of reference
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (h)
W. V. A. Quine
Reference and modality
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (i)
W. V. A. Quine
Meaning and existential inference
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VIII
W.V.O. Quine
Designation and Existence, in: The Journal of Philosophy 36 (1939)
German Edition:
Bezeichnung und Referenz
In
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg) München 1982

Quine IX
W.V.O. Quine
Set Theory and its Logic, Cambridge/MA 1963
German Edition:
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

Quine X
W.V.O. Quine
The Philosophy of Logic, Cambridge/MA 1970, 1986
German Edition:
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

Quine XII
W.V.O. Quine
Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, New York 1969
German Edition:
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003

Quine XIII
Willard Van Orman Quine
Quiddities Cambridge/London 1987

Reading Acquisition Bryant Slater I 132
Reading Acquisition/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1) provided evidence for a causal link between categorizing words on the basis of their constituent sounds and learning to read and to spell. This demonstration led to intensive investigation of the role of “phonological awareness” (the ability to detect and manipulate the component sounds in words) in literacy development across languages, and to the “phonological deficit” theory of developmental dyslexia. >Reading acquisition/Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 133
Bradley and Bryant (1978)(2) established, that children with reading difficulties were much poorer in deciding whether words rhymed with each other or whether words began with the same sound. >Causality/Bradley/Bryant. The impact of Bradley and Bryant’s work has been immense. >Reading acquisition Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 134
Bradley and Bryant (1983) reported high and significant time-lagged correlations between initial sound categorization scores and children’s later reading and spelling performance.
Slater I 139
VsBryant/VsBradley: Even for very consistent orthographies like German, focusing simply on training letter-sound relations does not bring the same benefits as an oral language training that is combined with letters (e.g., Schneider et al., 1997)(3). Another criticism has been that the oddity task is not an ideal measure of phonological awareness. Worries have been expressed about the load it may place on phonological memory (Snowling, Hulme, Smith & Thomas, 1994)(4), about its validity and reliability as a psychometric measure (Macmillan, 2002)(5), and about whether it is really a measure of rhyme and alliteration awareness or a measure of phoneme awareness (in the rhyme versions of the task, the odd word out is only one phoneme different). In fact, Snowling et al. (1994)(4) found that sound categorization abilities did not depend on memory.


1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746–747.
3. Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M., & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311–340.
4. Snowling, M. J., Hulme, C., Smith, A., & Thomas, J. (1994). The effects of phonetic similarity and list length on children’s sound categorization performance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 160–180.
5. Macmillan, B. M. (2002). Rhyme and reading: A critical review of the research methodology. Journal of Research in Reading, 25, 4–42.


Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Reading Acquisition Bradley Slater I 132
Reading Acquisition/Bradley/Bryant: Bradley and Bryant (1983)(1) provided evidence for a causal link between categorizing words on the basis of their constituent sounds and learning to read and to spell. This demonstration led to intensive investigation of the role of “phonological awareness” (the ability to detect and manipulate the component sounds in words) in literacy development across languages, and to the “phonological deficit” theory of developmental dyslexia. >Reading acquisition/Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 133
Bradley and Bryant (1978)(2) established, that children with reading difficulties were much poorer in deciding whether words rhymed with each other or whether words began with the same sound. >Causality/Bradley/Bryant. The impact of Bradley and Bryant’s work has been immense. >Reading acquisition Stanovich, >Reading acquisition/Frith.
Slater I 134
Bradley and Bryant (1983) reported high and significant time-lagged correlations between initial sound categorization scores and children’s later reading and spelling performance.
Slater I 139
VsBryant/VsBradley: Even for very consistent orthographies like German, focusing simply on training letter-sound relations does not bring the same benefits as an oral language training that is combined with letters (e.g., Schneider et al., 1997)(3). Another criticism has been that the oddity task is not an ideal measure of phonological awareness. Worries have been expressed about the load it may place on phonological memory (Snowling, Hulme, Smith & Thomas, 1994)(4), about its validity and reliability as a psychometric measure (Macmillan, 2002)(5), and about whether it is really a measure of rhyme and alliteration awareness or a measure of phoneme awareness (in the rhyme versions of the task, the odd word out is only one phoneme different). In fact, Snowling et al. (1994)(4) found that sound categorization abilities did not depend on memory.


1. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
2. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746–747.
3. Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M., & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311–340.
4. Snowling, M. J., Hulme, C., Smith, A., & Thomas, J. (1994). The effects of phonetic similarity and list length on children’s sound categorization performance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 160–180.
5. Macmillan, B. M. (2002). Rhyme and reading: A critical review of the research methodology. Journal of Research in Reading, 25, 4–42.



Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications

Brad I
F. H. Bradley
Essays on Truth and Reality (1914) Ithaca 2009


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Reading Acquisition Educational Psychology Slater I 136
Reading acquisition/dyslexia/educational psychology: Regarding education, there is ongoing debate about the extent to which rhyme and alliteration should have a place in the early reading curriculum (e.g., Johnston & Watson, 2004)(1). This goes back to the Bradley and Bryant’s (1983)(2) study. >Reading acquisition/Bradley/Bryant. About how best to link oral language skills to reading and spelling instruction (e.g., Wyse & Goswami, 2008)(3), about potential social class differences in school entry skills in rhyme and alliteration (e.g., Raz & Bryant, 2000)(4), and about how to foster optimal home literacy environments before a child even enters school (e.g., Whitehurst et al., 1994)(5).
Slater I 139
VsBryant/VsBradley: Even for very consistent orthographies like German, focusing simply on training letter-sound relations does not bring the same benefits as an oral language training that is combined with letters (e.g., Schneider et al., 1997)(6).


1. Johnston, R., & Watson, J. (2004). Accelerating the development of reading, spelling and phonemic awareness skills in initial readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 327–357.
2. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorising sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 310, 419–421.
3. Wyse, D., & Goswami, U. (2008). Synthetic phonics and the teaching of reading. British Journal of Educational Research, 34, 691–710.
4. Raz, I. S., & Bryant, P. (1990). Social background, phonological awareness and children’s reading. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 209–225.
5. Whitehurst, G. J., Arnold, D. S., Epstein, J. N., Angell, A. L., Smith, M., & Fischel, J. E. (1994). A picture book reading intervention in day care and home for children from low-income families. Developmental Psychology, 30, 679–689.
6. Schneider, W., Kuespert, P., Roth, E., Vise, M., & Marx, H. (1997). Short- and long-term effects of training phonological awareness in kindergarten: Evidence from two German studies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66, 311–340.


Usha Goswami, „Reading and Spelling.Revisiting Bradley and Bryant’s Study“ in: Alan M. Slater & Paul C. Quinn (eds.) 2012. Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies. London: Sage Publications


Slater I
Alan M. Slater
Paul C. Quinn
Developmental Psychology. Revisiting the Classic Studies London 2012
Statements Ayer I 281
Statement / world: anything in the world must be distinguished from the statement.
I 289
Statements / Ayer: 3 conditions: they must 1st be checked directly 2nd be simply 3rd absolutely specific - then "fact" is definable:
  I 290
"Great statement" / Hegel / Ayer: (paraphrased): "the whole truth" - AyerVsHegel / AyerVsIdealism / AyerVsBradley: then all normal statements are wrong - wrong solution: "partially true." AyerVs: that makes all statements indistinguishable - (> indistinguishability).

Ayer I
Alfred J. Ayer
"Truth" in: The Concept of a Person and other Essays, London 1963
In
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk Frankfurt/M. 1977

Ayer II
Alfred Jules Ayer
Language, Truth and Logic, London 1936
In
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A. Hügli/P. Lübcke

Ayer III
Alfred Jules Ayer
"The Criterion of Truth", Analysis 3 (1935), pp. 28-32
In
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994


The author or concept searched is found in the following 3 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Armstrong, D. Quine Vs Armstrong, D. II 221
QuineVsArmstrong: he does not provide a scale. He revives Bradley's old problem of the relation recourse. QuineVsBradley: All of Bradley's relations are real, but it does not come down to recourse, because we can define each of them, from the outermost to the innermost without referring to the one positioned further inwards.
The reason is that the use of double-digit predicate as such is not a reference to an ever so real relation which constitutes the extension of the predicate. Such a reference would rather be the task of a corresponding abstract singular term or a bound variable.
II 222
QuineVsArmstrong: A. neglects the individuation of universals. In that, we are mainly thinking about properties and attributes. I make no difference here. (..+.. "properties" abandoned in favor of "attribute"...+) I expressly accept classes and predicates as objects.
It is impossible to interpret classes as concrete sums or aggregates.

Quine I
W.V.O. Quine
Word and Object, Cambridge/MA 1960
German Edition:
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

Quine II
W.V.O. Quine
Theories and Things, Cambridge/MA 1986
German Edition:
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

Quine III
W.V.O. Quine
Methods of Logic, 4th edition Cambridge/MA 1982
German Edition:
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

Quine V
W.V.O. Quine
The Roots of Reference, La Salle/Illinois 1974
German Edition:
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

Quine VI
W.V.O. Quine
Pursuit of Truth, Cambridge/MA 1992
German Edition:
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

Quine VII
W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

Quine VII (a)
W. V. A. Quine
On what there is
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (b)
W. V. A. Quine
Two dogmas of empiricism
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (c)
W. V. A. Quine
The problem of meaning in linguistics
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (d)
W. V. A. Quine
Identity, ostension and hypostasis
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (e)
W. V. A. Quine
New foundations for mathematical logic
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (f)
W. V. A. Quine
Logic and the reification of universals
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (g)
W. V. A. Quine
Notes on the theory of reference
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (h)
W. V. A. Quine
Reference and modality
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (i)
W. V. A. Quine
Meaning and existential inference
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VIII
W.V.O. Quine
Designation and Existence, in: The Journal of Philosophy 36 (1939)
German Edition:
Bezeichnung und Referenz
In
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg) München 1982

Quine IX
W.V.O. Quine
Set Theory and its Logic, Cambridge/MA 1963
German Edition:
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

Quine X
W.V.O. Quine
The Philosophy of Logic, Cambridge/MA 1970, 1986
German Edition:
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

Quine XII
W.V.O. Quine
Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, New York 1969
German Edition:
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003

Quine XIII
Willard Van Orman Quine
Quiddities Cambridge/London 1987
Bradley, F.H. Rescher Vs Bradley, F.H. I 370
Def Truth/Bradley (Idealist): "Truth is an ideal expression of the universe, coherent and comprehensive at the same time.
I 371
RescherVsBradley: But "coherence" is a transitive verb. Any coherence must be coherence with something. Coherence/Rescher: is a property that cannot have individual propositions but only sets. In a truly coherent system, we can infer from the falsity of any proposition within the system the falsity of any other proposition. (Arithmetic).
I 373
E.g. Multiplication of false results is itself a contradictory procedure.
I 374
We cannot therefore argue that none of the coherent propositions can be false without all being false, but only that none can be false without some others also being false. Unless the propositions are simply redundant, they cannot all be true or false at the same time. ((s) thus not maximum consistent).

Resch I
Nicholas Rescher
The Criteriology of Truth; Fundamental Aspects of the Coherence Theory of Truth, in: The Coherence Theory of Truth, Oxford 1973 - dt. Auszug: Die Kriterien der Wahrheit
In
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk Frankfurt/M. 1977

Resch II
N. Rescher
Kant and the Reach of Reason: Studies in Kant’ s Theory of Rational Systematization Cambridge 2010
Idealism Ayer Vs Idealism Ayer I 290
Ayer idealism Coherence theory/Idealism: With some authors (New Hegelians: Bradley, H.H. Joachim) it is not a truth theory, but a meaning theory! Starting point: individuation: it is impossible to identify any object if it cannot be fully specified. But that includes the description of any possible relationships that exist with other objects. This leads to the conclusion that there is only one statement that can be made meaningful, namely the one that teaches us the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. (> Hegel). Our actual statements always have to be short versions of this Great Statement. (DavidsonVs: it is impossible to specify all the properties of an object.). AyerVsBradley: he missed one unfortunate consequence: if our statements are not short versions of the Great Statement, nothing real corresponds to any of them and they are therefore all wrong or meaningless. Defenders of the theory assert that our judgments are at best partially true. AyerVs: this is simply dishonest. If you wanted to accept "partly true" at all, this does not allow to distinguish between statements at all anymore.
I 291
Coherence theory/AyerVsBradley: this curious theory must be distinguished from the actual coherence theory of the Vienna positivists. Positivism: does not deny the ability to make logically independent statements. There is no interlinkage to internal relations of any kind. Fact/Statement/Ayer: some think that direct comparison is metaphysical and therefore meaningless. (> Duhem).

Ayer I
Alfred J. Ayer
"Truth" in: The Concept of a Person and other Essays, London 1963
In
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk Frankfurt/M. 1977

Ayer II
Alfred Jules Ayer
Language, Truth and Logic, London 1936
In
Philosophie im 20. Jahrhundert, A. Hügli/P. Lübcke

Ayer III
Alfred Jules Ayer
"The Criterion of Truth", Analysis 3 (1935), pp. 28-32
In
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994