Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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al-Gazali Höffe Höffe I 132
Al-Gazali/Höffe: The probably greatest theologian of Islam, al-Gazali, raises the sharpest contradiction against Avicenna [VsAvicenna] (Algazel, 1058-1111). His main theological work The Revival of Religious Studies (Ihya' 'ulum ad-din, about 1100) deals with all questions of religious life: from worship services and social behaviour to perishable vices and saving virtues. With al-Gazäli in many places a scriptural orthodoxy triumphs over an Islam enlightened by philosophy. In political terms, a counterrevolution is gaining ground:
The first spiritual revolution, the Hellenization, is rejected along with subsequent revolutions, while Islamic mysticism flourishes.(al-GazaliVsHellenism).

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

Politics Avicenna Höffe I 131
Politics/Avicenna/Höffe: In political thinking, which is contained in his summa, Avicenna is quite orthodox. While he emphasizes the importance of partnership, law
Höffe I 132
and justice, he advocates a redistribution of wealth and an adaptable legal system. In the provisions on marriage and divorce, penalties and taxes, however, he follows the religious laws; Rule: The caliph is considered to have universal jurisdiction; wars are to be waged against the enemies of the right doctrine; the property of the defeated falls to the victor.
Slavery: With Aristotle there are [for Avicenna] "slaves by nature", under which, amazingly concretely, all "Negroes and Turks" fall.
HöffeVsBloch: Such statements raise doubts about Ernst Bloch's attempt to count Avicenna among the Aristotelian Left.
VsAvicenna/Höffe: Avicenna's teaching of philosophy and Islamic theology has met with fierce criticism from both philosophers and theologians. The probably greatest theologian of Islam, >al-Gazali (Algazel, 1058-1111) raises the sharpest contradiction.

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016