Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Life Kauffman I 60
Primordial Soup/Kauffman: Earth's atmosphere mainly hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide. Vs: it should have been extremely diluted.
Solution: new theory by Alexander Oparin, biophysicist, Soviet Union: When glycerine is mixed with other molecules, gel-like structures are formed which are called coacervates. Inside these structures, the molecular processes are isolated from the diluted aqueous environment.
Life/Emergence/Stanley Miller, 1952: received amino acids from the primordial soup tracted with lightning in the laboratory.
DNA: pure DNA does not replicate itself. This requires complex mixtures of protein enzymes.
I 68
Life/Development/RNA/Kauffman: a naked, replicating RNA molecule would be conceivable. It would be a more promising candidate for the first living molecule. Practically never succeeds in experiments. There are only balls instead of stretched structures. DNA/RNA/Kauffman: 10 years ago (until 1985) it was believed that the two are largely inert chemical information stores. Then it was discovered that the RNA itself can act as enzymes! Ribozymes. They cut out their introns themselves.
I 71
Life/Emergence/Kauffman: Assuming that such a molecule had been created. Could it have defied mutation-related destruction? Could it have gone through a development? Both times: probably no!
Problem: Error catastrophe.
2. KauffmannVs: it is unlikely because those bare RNA molecules are not complex enough.
All living beings have a certain minimum complexity which cannot be undercut!
The simplest living organisms, the bacteria "Pleuromona" already possess cell membranes, genes, RNA, particles for protein synthesis, proteins.
Question: why is a system simpler than Pleuromona not viable?
I 77
Life/Kauffman: Thesis: Life is not bound to the magical power of matrix replication, but is based on a deeper logic. Life is an inherent characteristic of complex chemical systems. As soon as the number of different types of molecules in a chemical soup exceeds a certain threshold, an autocatalytic metabolism suddenly occurs in a self-sustaining network of reactions.
Life was already complex at the time of its creation and has remained so to this day.
The roots reach deeper down than to the level of the double helix, they are based on the laws of chemistry itself.
I 79
Life/Development/Kauffman: Assuming that the laws of chemistry would be somewhat different, e. g. nitrogen four instead of five valence electrons and therefore only four instead of five possible binding partners. Key: Catalysis. Life: Condition of emergence: catalytic closure. This is necessary, but not yet sufficient. Chemistry/Reaction/Kauffman: in general, chemical reactions are reversible.
I 97
Life/Kauffman: thesis: the emergence of autocatalytic formations is almost inevitable. In more complex systems, the number of edges compared to the nodes is increasing.
Molecules with the length L can be composed of smaller polymers in L-1 ways.
I 107
All we need is sufficient molecular diversity.
I 108
Life/Kauffman: Thesis: simple systems do not achieve catalytic closure. Life emerged in one piece and not in successive steps, and it has retained this holistic character to this day.

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

Selection Kauffman Dennett I 550
Scientific camp: KauffmanVsSpencer: Stuart Kauffman: Order is created despite (environmental) selection.
I 46
Order/Biology/Kauffman: Order in the biosphere cannot be traced back to selection and self-organization at the same time! Life/Kauffman: life exists at the edge of chaos, possibly near some kind of phase transition.
I 229
Fitness landscape/Kauffman:"adaptive landscape". (see also Dennett: fitness landscape.) Thesis: Life is an adventure in the high mountains of the fitness landscape.
Order/Kauffman: Thesis: also possible without selection. Today we need a new theoretical framework model.
I 233
Selection/Kauffman: it is not proven that the selection can also successfully accumulate the minor improvements. Smaller catastrophes can also accumulate in a population. (>Error catastrophe).
I 234
Evolution/Kauffman: Example of computer programs that are to perform an operation. Serial programs are extremely sensitive and accumulate errors. It takes more time than the age of the universe to find the "optimal program" among 10300. So the evolution of our lives must have been different.
I 238
Evolution/Optimization/Kauffman: Solution: perhaps evolution could first design a redundant program or organism and then compress it?
I 240
Kauffman: I guess this does not work. The gradual approach to the minimum length program is only useful if the program found at each level helps to find the program that is 1 shorter by the next level.
I 246
Evolution/Darwin/Selection/Kauffman: if the children of both parents are similar, the characteristics must not merge, otherwise the genetic variation would disappear after a few generations and the selection would no longer have an object. Solution: Mendelian inheritance: both forms appear again in the grandchildren.
Question: Assuming that a gene in a population would have two alleles, can the selection increase the frequency of one allele? Yes! However, it depends on the structure of the fitness landscape.
I 248
Selection/Kauffman: our models of fitness landscapes show the limits of natural selection. (Local maximum represent end stations.)
I 253
Evolution/Kauffman: requires fitness landscapes that are not random. Probably favourable landscapes are created by self-organization.

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998


Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild Frankfurt/M. 2005

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Darwin, Ch. Kauffman Vs Darwin, Ch. Dennett I 309
KauffmanVsDarwin: a definition of the early development and thus of Baer s laws do not represent a specific mechanism   Rather the definition of early development reflects the fact that the number of ways in which living things can be improved, shrunk faster than the number of paths in the later development.
KauffmanVsDarwin: according to his theory, the evolution takes place only by the gradual accumulation of advantageous variants.
Kauffman I 27
KauffmanVs: according to that the first multicellular organisms would have evolved apart! That was obviously not the case: one of the most puzzling features of the Cambrian explosion is that the taxonomic system was filled from top to bottom. Selection / Kauffman: there is a second boundary of the selection: it not only fails in random landscapes.
I 278
KauffmanVsDarwin: the selection may also fail in uniform fitness landscapes, the "heartland" of Darwinism: it can trigger an error catastrophe.   E.g. a bacterial species with initially identical individuals can be scattered from a local peak, down, simply because the mutation rate is too high!

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild Frankfurt/M. 2005