Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Political Economy Mill Höffe I 351
Political Economy/Mill/Höffe: According to socialist authors such as the Englishman Robert Owen (1771-1858) (...) and the Frenchman Louis Blanc (1811-1882), free competition is to be abolished and the state is to be assigned the entirety of economic tasks. MillVsBlanc/MillVsOwen/MillVsSocialism: Mill(1) counters this with the argument that individuals can act selfishly and judge their own interests best. Especially in the economic sphere, the counter-strategy to socialism, the non-intervention of the state (laisser-faire), brings about a double optimization: for Mill as a >utilitarian the most efficient state activity and for him as a liberal the strongest incentive for the development of individuals.
Humans/Mill: Mill rejects the two "economistic" views, on the other hand, that the human is a homo oeconomicus by nature and that in social life the primacy of the economy is due. People, he says, have other things more important than satisfying their needs and interests by purchasing relevant goods and services as rationally as possible.
What is decisive are those things such as ideas and fine arts, which humans seek for their own sake. Last but not least, instead of the economy, politics alone deserves - and should complement, humane and humanitarian practice - priority(1).

1. J. St. Mill, Principles of Political Economy 1848

Mill I
John St. Mill
A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, London 1843
German Edition:
Von Namen, aus: A System of Logic, London 1843
Eigennamen, Ursula Wolf Frankfurt/M. 1993

Mill II
J. St. Mill
Utilitarianism: 1st (First) Edition Oxford 1998

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016
Socialism Nietzsche Höffe I 377
Socialism/Nietzsche/Höffe: NietzscheVsSocialism(1): Its eventual victory, determined as the uprising of those oppressed for millennia, is not a question of right but of power, and likewise not an outflow of justice but of covetousness. The criticism culminates in the assertion that (...) socialism is the "younger brother of the almost extinct despotism," for it desires an abundance of state power that amounts to the "annihilation of the individual".

1. F. Nietzsche Ein Blick auf den Staat. In: F. Nietzsche, Menschliches, Allzumenschliches, 1878

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016