Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Entry
Reference
Computer Programming Lanier I 71
Programming/computer programming/Lanier: in the early days of computer science there was a saying: "Whoever enters garbage gets garbage". It is not to be expected that a greater wisdom would have to result from a multiplicity of fragments. (> Swarm intelligence, LanierVsShirky, Clay.) ---
I 100
The binary character at the core of software production returns at higher levels. It is much easier to tell a program to run or not to run than to tell it to run reasonably well. It is also easier to install a rigid representation of human relationships in digital networks. A reduced version of life then circulates continually between friends.

Lanier I
Jaron Lanier
You are not a Gadget. A Manifesto, New York 2010
German Edition:
Gadget: Warum die Zukunft uns noch braucht Frankfurt/M. 2012

Internet Jarvis Morozov I 56
Internet/Printing/Jarvis/MorozovVsJarvis/Morozov: for Jarvis' (...) world view tools are something fixed. They are outside of culture and history. This also characterizes Jarvis's writing about "the Internet" itself, (...) which is understood as unproblematic and unchangeable, its democratic nature (would be) carved in stone. MorozovVsJarvis/MorozovVsShirky: their two views on "the Internet" are far too broad and abstracted from local conditions, if they even overlap with the history of book printing.

Jarvis I
Jeff Jarvis
What Would Google Do?: Reverse-Engineering the Fastest Growing Company in the History of the World New York 2011

Jarvis II
Jeff Jarvis
Public Parts: How Sharing in the Digital Age Improves the Way We Work and Live New York 2011


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Internet Shirky Morozov I 39
Internet/collaboration/Shirky/Morozov: Shirky bases his theses (1) mainly on two sources: 1. Susanne Lohmann's statement of the East German protests 1989 (2)
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Morozov I 40
2. And Ronald Coase's theory of the emergence of companies (3) from which Shirky takes over the concept of transaction costs. MorozovVsShirky: both sources are not suitable or neutral enough to explain digital technologies.
Susanne Lohmann/Morozov: her approach is context-independent and views people as one-dimensional ahistorical characters in order to establish a theory of information cascades that works in Calcutta as well as in Cairo. Thesis: when people see others who are already protesting on the street, they tend to join them, but only when the protests reach a certain level.
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I 40/41
MorozovVsShirky: with his theory, which is inspired by Lohmann and Coase, he can explain everything, but through its generality the theory does not explain anything in the end. ---
I 43
Transaction costs/Coase/MorozovVsShirky: the term transaction cost is suitable to explain Californian start-up companies, but hardly to understand Iranian society if we do not know anything about Iranian culture, history and politics. Who are the relevant actors? What are the relevant transactions? Collaboration/MorozovVsShirky: does no one else but dissidents in these countries collaborate? Only the dissidents? Are all these dissidents united? Or do they pursue their own goals?

1. Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations (New York: Penguin, 2009).
2. Susanne Lohmann, “The Dynamics of Informational Cascades: The Monday Demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989– 91,” World Politics 47, no. 1 (October 1, 1994): 42– 101.
3. Ronald Coase, “The Nature of the Firm,” Economica, 4 (1937): 386– 405.

Shirky I
Clay Shirky
Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations New York 2009


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Networks Shirky Morozov I 125
Networks/Shirky/Morozov: Shirky thesis: New capable groups gather and they work... outside the previous structures that restricted their effectiveness. These changes will change the world wherever groups of people come together to achieve something... (1). It is groups and networks that are distributed, often spanning borders, which have the power; hierarchies and states that are limited to defined territories and action programmes are outwitted at every turn. (See also Wikileaks/Shirky, MorozovVsShirky). ---
Shirky I 215
Networks/Small World/Shirky: you can connect 10 points (individuals) by placing them on a circle and drawing all kinds of connections. Or you can form small groups of maybe 2 x 5 points connected to each other, but there are only one or two connections between these subgroups. This corresponds to another strategy called "Small World". (2) ---
I 216
Small world networks provide a result that is better than a random constellation when you accept the cost for the number of connections. ---
I 217
Within a small world network there is a hierarchy of points to which more or less connections lead. Malcolm Gladwell refers to individuals who sit at switching points between subgroups as connectors. (3) ---
I 218
Society/Watts/Strogatz/Shirky: Watts and Strogatz discovered that societies correspond to different types of such constructions. Some societies are more strongly organized according to tribal hierarchies, some are more deeply rooted locally, etc. ((s) No citation of source f. Strogatz). Blogs/Shirky: also different weblogs have such structural differences: there are some where a central author acts like a radio station, others are made up of small groups, where most of them take part in the exchange of contributions.

1. Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations (New York: Penguin, 2009), 24.
2. Duncan Watts, Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Complexity, Princeton University Press (1999). Duncan Watts, Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, W.W. Norton and Company (2003).
3. Malcolm Gladwell, The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference, Brown (2000).

Shirky I
Clay Shirky
Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations New York 2009


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014
Politics Sunstein I 42
Politics/Sunstein: should politics be made according to survey results? The theorem of Condorcet makes the question seem less pointless than it appears at first glance. (See Decision Theory/Condorcet). However, this only applies to yes/no questions within groups whose members are most likely to be correct in their majority. This may be the case in consultative bodies in companies, or in certain specialist areas when a panel of experts is consulted. However, it would not work if the population of a country, such as the United States, were asked whether the Kyoto Protocol should be signed.
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I 44
In many areas, people are subject to systematic mistakes. However, the question remains whether group discussions help. (See Democracy/Sunstein). Functioning democracies delegate certain issues to expert committees. ((s) See MorozovVsJarvis and MorozovVsShirky. ---
I 45
In an experiment in Colorado in the summer of 2005, liberal and conservative groups were mixed together to discuss some issues such as whether the United States should sign a climate change agreement or whether affirmative action should be accorded to disadvantaged groups. (1) The result was clear: in almost every group, the positions were more extremely polarized after the discussions, with the respective starting positions of the groups being more strongly represented.
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I 46
In addition, the respective groups found greater homogeneity. ---
I 49
Group discussion/John Rawls: Thesis: The advantages lie in the combination of information and increasing the range of arguments. (2) SunsteinVsRawls: see above.

1. See Reid Hastie, David Schkade, and Cass R. Sunstein, “What Really Happened on Deliberation Day?” (University of Chicago Law School, unpublished manuscript, 2006).
2. 8. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1971), 358–59.

Sunstein I
Cass R. Sunstein
Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge Oxford 2008

Sunstein II
Cass R. Sunstein
#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media Princeton 2017

Wikileaks Shirky Morozov I 125
Wikileaks/Shirky/Morozov: Shirky:... Groups and networks that are distributed and often cross borders that have the power; hierarchies and states that are limited to defined territories and action programmes are outwitted at every turn. (1)..... there was no way that the Foreign Ministry could go to WikiLeaks and have a conversation about something that hints at or is involved in anything called national interest. (2) MorozovVsShirky: The thing is not simple in the way that global affairs have recently proceeded according to the requirements of the "Internet". In fact, there were negotiations between Wikileaks and the US government (...) (3)

1. Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations (New York: Penguin, 2009), 24.
2. Department”: Clay Shirky, “Richard S. Salant Lecture on Freedom of the Press with Clay Shirky,” John Shorenstein Center, October 14, 2011,
3. Die Darstellung basiert auf Andrew D. Murray, "Nodes and Gravity in Virtual Space", Legisprudence 5, no. 2 (2011): 195- 221. 127

Shirky I
Clay Shirky
Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations New York 2009


Morozov I
Evgeny Morozov
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism New York 2014