Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Democratic Theory Schumpeter Mause I 64f
Democratic Theory/Schumpeter: For almost three decades, international democracy theory has been shaped by two books written by economists: Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy by Joseph A. Schumpeter (1942) (1) and An Economic Theory of Democracy by Anthony Downs (1957 (2). In the history of theory there are only a few works on economic democracy theory (cf. the works of Brian Barry 1970) (3). Method/Schumpeter: Method transfer: Schumpeter conceives democracy in analogy to the market, but not yet with neoclassical methodology. The central elements of his economic theory - the creative entrepreneur and competition - are transposed into the political sphere. Schumpeter's elite theory of democracy is thus shaped by his economic theory. For him, democracy is only one method by means of which political elites competing for power can be elected and voted out of office. It no longer has intrinsic value, but is only a means to an end - for the selection of political elites. In summary, the central task of a realistic theory of democracy is "to adequately recognize the vital fact of leadership" (4).
N.B.: the personnel of the elite is determined by rivalry and competition.
Problem: Schumpeter himself sees weaknesses in this analogy: the quality of personnel cannot be determined as precisely by choice as in the case of goods.
I 65
Democratic Theory/Schumpeter: Thesis: Democracy should be reduced to a method of electing or replacing competing elites without bloodshed. See also Democratic Theory/Sartori, Democratic Theory/Pateman. PatemanVsSchumpeter: this is a fatal logic of argumentation: citizens do not meet the normative expectations of classical theory, and therefore democratic participation must be reduced to a minimum in order to not endanger democracy.


Gary S. Schaal, “Carole Pateman, Participation and Democratic Theory” in: Manfred Brocker (ed.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018



1. J. A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. New York 1942. [dt. Kapitalismus, Sozialismus und Demokratie. Tübingen/ Basel 2005.
2. A. Downs, An economic theory of democracy. New York 1957; [dt. Ökonomische Theorie der Demokratie. Tübingen 1968.
3.B. Barry, Sociologists, economists, and democracy. Chicago 1970.
4. Schumpeter, ebenda, deutsch, S. 429.

EconSchum I
Joseph A. Schumpeter
The Theory of Economic Development An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle, Cambridge/MA 1934
German Edition:
Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung Leipzig 1912


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Democratic Theory Pateman Brocker I 505
Democratic Theory/Pateman: PatemanVsSchumpeter/PatemanVsSartori: Thesis: The formation of positive attitudes towards democracy is not a question of cognitive competence, but of democratizing a previously undemocratic institutional structure that systematically generates undemocratic attitudes and feelings of individual incompetence: the production of capitalist goods. See Democratic Theory/Schumpeter, Democratic Theory/Sartori.
Democracy/Tradition: However, the sphere of goods production must remain undemocratic to ensure productivity and efficiency. There is therefore no alternative to the democratic status quo that would not endanger democracy itself.
Brocker I 506
PatemanVsTradition: 1 VsSchumpeter: the normative evaluation scale is incorrectly constructed: the concept of a "classical democracy theory" is a myth. (1) The sources are more heterogeneous than traditionally claimed. History of ideas/Pateman: must not be reduced to pure normativity.
Labour/Democratization: 2. PatemanVsSchumpeter: Democratic participation and productivity are not contradictory.
VsPateman: Schumpeter does not reconstruct this in the dynamic aspects of his work. Taking into account Schumpeter's analysis of the importance of leadership, creativity and innovation for capitalism
Brocker I 507
would have improved the persuasiveness of her argument.

1. Carole Pateman, Participation and Democratic Theory, Cambridge 1970, S. 17.

Gary S. Schaal, “Carole Pateman, Participation and Democratic Theory” in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

PolPate I
Carole Pateman
Political Culture, Political Structure and Political Change 1971


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Participation Pateman Brocker I 510
Participation/Pateman: "The existence of a democratic community therefore requires the existence of a participatory society, a society in which all political systems have been democratized and socialization through participation can take place in all areas. The most important area is industry" (1). In doing so, Pateman opposes traditional approaches of democracy theory that reduce the questions of democracy to the political. PatemanVsSchumpeter, PatemanVsSartori: see Democratic Theory/Sartori, Democratic Theory/Schumpeter.
Schaal: Pateman does not argue from a socialist perspective, but rather her demand for the extension of democratic mechanisms to non-political areas such as industrial work is based on the systematic explication of the normative ideals of liberalism.
VsPateman: her approach of "quasi-empiracy" is criticized by later authors as not convincing enough. Cf., Schonfeld, 1975, (2), Moon 1972 (3).
Brocker I 514
Pateman/Schaal: Pateman's Participation and Democratic Theory belongs to the canon of modern (english) classics of participatory democracy theory (Held 1987, 254-264 (4)) and was only replaced as a standard work of participatory democracy theory by Benjamin Barbers Strong Democracy in 1984.

1. Carole Pateman, Participation and Democratic Theory, Cambridge 1970, S. 43
2. Schonfeld, William R., »The Meaning of Democratic Participation«, in: World Politics 28/1, 1975, 134-158.
3. Moon, J. Donald, »Participation and Democracy. A Review Essay«, in: Midwest Journal of Political Science 16/3, 1972, 473-485.
4. David Held, David, Models of Democracy, Cambridge 1987.


Gary S. Schaal, “Carole Pateman, Participation and Democratic Theory” in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

PolPate I
Carole Pateman
Political Culture, Political Structure and Political Change 1971


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Politics Schumpeter Mause I 65
Politics/Schumpeter: Schumpeter's thesis is famous that the citizen "falls to a lower level of mental achievement as soon as he enters the political realm. He argues and analyses in a way that he would readily acknowledge as infantile within the sphere of his real interests. He's becoming primitive again." (1) VsSchumpeter: Schumpeter still saw a lack of rationality in the ignorance of the citizens; later theorists have normatively revalued the same facts as rational ignorance.


1. J. A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. New York 1942. [dt. Kapitalismus, Sozialismus und Demokratie. Tübingen/ Basel 2005, S. 416.

EconSchum I
Joseph A. Schumpeter
The Theory of Economic Development An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle, Cambridge/MA 1934
German Edition:
Theorie der wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung Leipzig 1912


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018