Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 13 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Appearance Nietzsche Ries II 29
Appearance/NietzscheVsSchopenhauer: Vs Differentiation of "Apparition" and "Thing in itself" (in Schopenhauer the will). This distinction no longer exists, it was based on Plato. ---
Ries II 65
Appearance/Nietzsche: the only real reality of things. "A certain name for this reality would be the will to power", that is, from within, and not from its unfathomable liquid proteus nature." ---
Ries II 101
Dionysos/Nietzsche: the mystery remains unresolved: is Dionysos himself appearance or the other of appearance? ---
Danto III 135
Thing per se/NietzscheVsKant/Nietzsche/Danto: the contrast between "thing per se" and "appearance" is untenable (...) as well as the terms "subject" and "object" and ultimately also their various modifications e. g. "matter", "mind" and other hypothetical beings, "eternity and unchangeability of matter" etc. We got rid of materiality. (F. Nietzsche Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 540f).

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Deduction Thiel I 84
Deduction/Thiel: Ancient mathematics knew no deduction at all, only calculation rules.
I 86
Schopenhauer polemicized against deduction, figure I 86 gives more than the Euclidean proof: insight into the matter and inner firm belief of every necessity and of the dependence of that quality on "right angles".
I 87
ThielVsSchopenhauer: Of course one will have to say that we do not recognize the state of affairs at a glance, but step by step, by mental rearranging. The figure itself also has generality, but not one that is detached or detachable from the figure, at most one that can be transferred to related figures, namely those constructed according to the same "principle".
I 91
Apodeixis: "the necessary evidence" but also "representation". The Greeks had a method of "psephoi", the numerical figures layed with small stones. The joke is that the construction of the figure is independent of the number of stones. You do not need an induction conclusion.

T I
Chr. Thiel
Philosophie und Mathematik Darmstadt 1995

Determinism Quine VI 127
Determinism/Quine: we are free to do what we choose. Whether or not our decisions are then in turn determined by underlying causes is out of the question! These are fictitious attacks on the sentence of the excluded middle. >Excluded Middle/Quine.
Theorem of the excluded middle/divalent logic/Quine: Ignorance of the truth value gets along very well with divalent logic and belongs very well to the business. It is compatible with truth and falsity.
VI 128
Obviously it is not the (ambiguous) sentences themselves that are true or false, but the corresponding statements. It is incompleteness, not violations of the sentence of the excluded middle.
Completion, however, does not lie in the future, as with the theologians.
Determinism/free will/Quine: determinism has nothing to do with freedom (Hume, Spinoza ditto) - free is the behavior, because it is caused by internal motives - that motives are caused again, has nothing to do with freedom - QuineVsSchopenhauer.
QuineVsPenrose: determinism has been questioned by quantum physics, but this is certainly not a backdoor to free will. >Freedom/Quine.

Quine I
W.V.O. Quine
Word and Object, Cambridge/MA 1960
German Edition:
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

Quine II
W.V.O. Quine
Theories and Things, Cambridge/MA 1986
German Edition:
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

Quine III
W.V.O. Quine
Methods of Logic, 4th edition Cambridge/MA 1982
German Edition:
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

Quine V
W.V.O. Quine
The Roots of Reference, La Salle/Illinois 1974
German Edition:
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

Quine VI
W.V.O. Quine
Pursuit of Truth, Cambridge/MA 1992
German Edition:
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

Quine VII
W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

Quine VII (a)
W. V. A. Quine
On what there is
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (b)
W. V. A. Quine
Two dogmas of empiricism
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (c)
W. V. A. Quine
The problem of meaning in linguistics
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (d)
W. V. A. Quine
Identity, ostension and hypostasis
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (e)
W. V. A. Quine
New foundations for mathematical logic
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (f)
W. V. A. Quine
Logic and the reification of universals
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (g)
W. V. A. Quine
Notes on the theory of reference
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (h)
W. V. A. Quine
Reference and modality
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VII (i)
W. V. A. Quine
Meaning and existential inference
In
From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, MA 1953

Quine VIII
W.V.O. Quine
Designation and Existence, in: The Journal of Philosophy 36 (1939)
German Edition:
Bezeichnung und Referenz
In
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg) München 1982

Quine IX
W.V.O. Quine
Set Theory and its Logic, Cambridge/MA 1963
German Edition:
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

Quine X
W.V.O. Quine
The Philosophy of Logic, Cambridge/MA 1970, 1986
German Edition:
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

Quine XII
W.V.O. Quine
Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, New York 1969
German Edition:
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003

Quine XIII
Willard Van Orman Quine
Quiddities Cambridge/London 1987

Free Will Berkeley Berkeley / Breidert I 234f
Free will/Schopenhauer: can man also "want, as he wants"?
BerkeleyVsSchopenhauer: this is idle philosophical speculation.
Schopenhauer: regarded Berkeley as a precursor.
Will/Schopenhauer: = "thing in itself". >Free Will/Schopenhauer.
>Will/Berkeley.
G. Berkeley
I Breidert Berkeley: Wahrnnehmung und Wirklichkeit, aus Speck(Hg) Grundprobleme der gr. Philosophen, Göttingen (UTB) 1997

Ber I
W. Breidert
Berkeley
In
Grundprobleme der großen Philosophen, J. Speck (Hg) Göttingen 1997
Free Will Nietzsche Danto III 140
Will/NietzscheVsSchopenhauer/Nietzsche/Danto: (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI., 2 p. 25): The philosophers tend to talk about the will as if it were the most known thing in the world; yes, Schopenhauer suggested that the will alone was known to us. DantoVsSchopenhauer: in reality this is not the case. There is no simple, self-identifiable mental operation that would be recognized as an act of will and intuitively grasped.
Nietzsche: There is no 'will': this is just a simplistic conception of the mind. (F. Nietzsche Nachlass: Berlin, 1999, p. 913).
---
Danto III 141
Will/Nietzsche: Perhaps the worst of all these fallacies is the conclusion that 'wanting is enough for action' (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI., 2 p. 27). ---
Danto III 143
Will/Nietzsche/Danto: (F. Nietzsche: Götzen-Dämmerung, KGW VI, 3 p. 85): The will does not move anything anymore, therefore it does not explain anything anymore - it merely accompanies processes, it can also be missing. Danto: if there is no will, there is no free or unfree will. (Cf. F. Nietzsche Nachlass: Berlin, 1999, p. 913).
Free Will/Nietzsche/Danto: this conclusion is hasty: the doctrine of free will does not depend at all on a psychological theory about the will as a mental phenomenon; 'free' is applied to actions, but not to the will.
Nietzsche mostly puts the argument about free will on ice, the idea of free will is due to "logical emergency breeding".

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Music Nietzsche Pfotenhauer IV 36
Individuation/Music/Philosophy/Nietzsche: Nietzsche speaks of a "mysterious primordial one" of the "World Harmony" and the "higher commonality" into which the one enters, (F. Nietzsche, Die Geburt der Tragödie, KGW VI, 3, p. 26) who ecstatically forgets himself, who escapes the fate of the individual. Pfotenhauer: "This thought of redemption in higher harmony is oriented towards music. Nietzsche himself speaks of a "profound metaphysics of music" (section 5, p. 42) in analogy to Schopenhauer.
The music in which the Dionysian state is in actual woe is the philosophical place of art, in which the process of becoming is shut down.
---
Danto III 80
Music/NietzscheVsWagner/Wagner/Nietzsche/Danto: Wagner could not live up to the high artistic demands of "The Birth of the Tragedy". Nietzsche saw himself as a composer, just as Wagner saw himself as a philosopher. ---
Danto III 81
Nietzsche has only heard a very small portion of Wagner's music, and if so, only passages from rehearsals. ---
Danto III 84
NietzscheVsWagner/NietzscheVsSchopenhauer: they deny life, they slander it, so they are my antipodes. (Nietzsche versus Wagner (1888), "Wir Antipoden", KGW VI. 3, p. 423.). Humanity owes a lot of evil to these rapturous drunkards. (F. Nietzsche, Morgenröte, 1st Book, 50).

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Pfot I
Helmut Pfotenhauer
Die Kunst als Physiologie. Nietzsches ästhetische Theorie und literarische Produktion. Stuttgart 1985

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Music Schopenhauer Pfotenhauer IV 45
Music/Schopenhauer: Schopenhauer sees the idea of the return of individuals and the isolated will in the unity of nature, orchestrated by music, as the culmination of the imaginable. NietzscheVsSchopenhauer: admits this, but only "completely detached from the greed of the will, pure unadulterated sun eye (...)" (F. Nietzsche, Die Geburt der Tragödie, KGW Kritische Gesamtausgabe III, 1. p. 47).


Pfot I
Helmut Pfotenhauer
Die Kunst als Physiologie. Nietzsches ästhetische Theorie und literarische Produktion. Stuttgart 1985
Nihilism Nietzsche Ries II 11
Nihilism/Nietzsche: overcoming nihilism oneself from the "will to nothing", to the will of the Dionysian affirmation of the fatality of all that was and will be. ---
Ries II 69
Nihilism/Return/Nietzsche: Nihilism and return must be thought together. The existence determined for nothing as a self-willing world of creation and destruction. "Everything is the same." Only in the "affirmation" the transition from the "mind of revenge" to the "Cupid Fati" takes place, the Dionysian way of saying "yes" to the world. Overcoming the mere temporality of time to the eternity of eternal return. "O human," bell in Sil's Maria. ---
Ries II 112
Nihilism/Nietzsche: the well thought out logic of our great values and ideals. ---
Ries II 113
The aim is missing. Return of the same. In vain! Duration, without aim and purpose, the paralyzing thought: one realizes that one is being teased and yet without power. Ries: Nietzsche anticipates the terrorist practice of fascism. Even those who have come to bad fortunes must be convinced that they are no different from their oppressors. Will to nothing. They force the powerful to be their executioners, this is the European form of Buddhism.
---
Danto III 40
Nihilism/Danto: nihilism was essentially a negative and destructive attitude against the set of political, religious and moral doctrines which the nihilists patronize most impressively expressed by Turgenev's fathers and sons. ---
Danto III 41
Nihilism/Nietzsche: Nihilism according to the pattern of St. Petersburg that is, (...) belief in unbelief, up to martyrdom (therefore) always shows the need for belief first. (F. Nietzsche: Fröhliche Wissenschaft, p. 347,, KGW V, 2, p. 264). ---
Danto III 42
Nihilism/Turgenev/Danto: the views of the figure of the Basarov from Turgenev's fathers and sons have something touchingly immature: A skilled chemist is twenty times more useful than any poet. Nihilism/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche's negativity was not more moderate, but his nihilism is not an ideology, but a metaphysics. He does not regard science as a source of truth or a method of discovering it, but rather sees it as a certain set of useful fictions or useful conventions, which in reality is not better or worse anchored than any once defined set of fictions which may conflict with it.
---
Danto III 43
Russian Nihilism/NietzscheVsNihilism: In contrast to Schopenhauer's Nihilism, Russian Nihilism is characterised by the fact that outside the world there is an authority, from which the purpose of life can be learned. ---
Danto III 44
Nihilism/Nietzsche/Danto: ... the human reaches the final form of nihilism: the unbelief towards any other imaginable world, which is metaphysically preferable to this one. At the same time, he understands that this world is the only one that exists, however much it may lack design, purpose and value. ---
Danto III 46
Eternal Return/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche's nihilism culminates in the doctrine of the Eternal Return, according to which the world repeats itself endlessly and precisely. Nietzsche considered it to be a serious scientific insight and the only alternative to that view, according to which the world has or can have a goal, a purpose or an end state. (F. Nietzsche: Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 684). ---
Danto III 43
Nihilism/Schopenhauer/Danto: the nihilism of emptiness, as well as Schopenhauer's nihilism, presupposes a widespread worldview according to which the goal is established from the outside, given, demanded. (F. Nietzsche: Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 554). NietzscheVsSchopenhauer: Instead of overcoming the state of mind that demands such a purpose, this nihilism is only disappointed by its absence. By overcoming it, all pessimism and despair is deprived of a basis. From his frustration with the all too stingy fairy, the human is able to free himself as soon as it gradually dawns on him that there is neither a stingy nor a generous fairy.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Philosophy Heidegger Figal 101
Philosophy/Heidegger/Figal: also according to the conception of being and time, it is a liberation from the bonds of transmitted concepts, but if this liberation no longer leads to the free attention to the beginning of history, but to the actual structure of existence, the history in its essence is no longer historical. The structure of existence exists as long as existence exists. ---
I 102
Solution: Heidegger succeeds the breakthrough in the winter term 1931/32: interpretation of the cave-parable (Politeia). Liberation from fetters, but metaphor of light (for the time), openness, permeability,"liberate." ---
I 104
Freedom/Heidegger: Being and time: existence makes free - later: light makes free. existence designs:
1. Art
2. Natural science 3. History
---
I 107
Art/Heidegger: neither "expression of experiences" nor pleasure. Instead, "the artist has the essential focus for the possible" to bring the hidden possibilities of beings to work. ---
Figal I 171
HeideggerVsPhilosophy: Vs Division into individual areas and thus scientificization. ---
Cardorff II 13
Philosophy/Heidegger/Cardorff: Heidegger's philosophy has no subject. It does not want to organize knowledge, make no statements, but create an event with its speech. "Passion for the useless". His philosophy propagates the domination of an admittedly dialogically unlegitimate speaking. ---
Cardorff II 36
Subject/object: HeideggerVs this traditional, space-creating differentiation. Instead: "Walten sui generis". VsDichotomies: Truth/Untruth - Theory/Practice - Freedom/Necessity - Belief/Knowledge - Divine/Human - Vs Totality-constituting categories: Being as substance, happening as consciousness, God as prima causa, will as thing in itself. (HeideggerVsSchopenhauer).
---
Cardorff II 46
Development in Heidegger's work: the process of condensation, the difference between existence and being becomes lesser; the human makes up less as something withstanding and holding to something and more and more as an executing and fitting in. The difference between being and exist (ontological difference) tends to be stronger than the inner action of being itself. ---
Cardorff II 60
Philosophy/Heidegger/Cardorff: 1. The thing about which it is can never be guilty of an incomprehension. It reigns as it reigns.
2. Heidegger is never to blame for an incomprehension; he is much too much into the thing.
3. The reader can want to be guilty, but ultimately is never guilty, because it is not he who blocks himself, but the one who is turning away.
4. It can always be assumed that Heidegger has been looking for uncertainty.
---
Cardorff II 69
Philosophy/Heidegger/Cardorff: Heidegger's texts draw the reader's attention, inter alia, as both meanings and meaning levels pass into one another. Heidegger is concerned with making it impossible to grasp the subject. ---
Cardorff II 102
Heidegger: all the evaluations of his philosophy are meaningless because they come from wrong questions.

Hei III
Martin Heidegger
Sein und Zeit Tübingen 1993


Figal I
Günter Figal
Martin Heidegger zur Einführung Hamburg 2016

Hei II
Peter Cardorff
Martin Heidegger Frankfurt/M. 1991
Philosophy Nietzsche Ries II 10
Philosophy/Nietzsche: What I am telling is the story of the next two centuries. The rising of nihilism. This story can already be told now. ---
Ries II 12
Experimental philosophy/Nietzsche: Overcoming the "spirit of revenge", which is conditioned by the moral interpretation of the world and aims at the destruction of inner as well as outer nature, to the pathos of a superhuman "divine lightness in the heaviest", which celebrates the world as a sequence of divine solutions and visions in the illusion. Aesthetic knowledge of meaning and the world. ---
Ries II 44
Philosophy/Schopenhauer/NietzscheVsSchopenhauer: his pessimistic thinking refuses any educational experience that is only aesthetically uplifting. This thinking - because it is no longer an abstract "philosophy" - is not at all consumable. ---
Ries II 76
Philosophy/Beyond Good and Evil/Nietzsche: 2nd main piece: "The Free Mind": A new genre of philosophers comes up: the tempters. 3rd main piece: "The Religious Being": internalized mysticism of masochism: cruelty is the essence of religion.
Victim: the futile attempt to break through the destiny of life.
Victim: last cruelty: to sacrifice God for nothing: paradoxical mystery. That is left out for the sex that is coming up now. (National Socialism/Fascism?).
---
Ries II 77
5th main piece: "The Natural History of Morality." ---
Danto III 90
Philosophy/Nietzsche/Danto: For Nietzsche, the real problem of philosophy was not to give answers (...) but to make it clear how (...) disputes could arise. For Nietzsche, a philosophical problem is a question that is not to be answered, but rather to overcome.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Power Nietzsche Ries II 65
Will to power/Nietzsche: describes the way in which everything is "real" as dynamically united multiplicity. On the other hand: NietzscheVsSchopenhauer: no identical primary source is hypostasized ontologically.
Will to power/self-conquest/Nietzsche: from the "I will" of the "lion" to the "holy saying yes" to the "I am" of the "child ".
---
Pfotenhauer IV 9
Power/Nietzsche: the will to power defeats the will to preserve. ---
Danto III 258
Power/Will to power/Nietzsche/Danto: the expression 'will to power' appears abruptly in Nietzsche's work, without much explaining what he means by it or the importance of this expression for his thinking. Along with the doctrine of the eternal return, ...
---
Danto III 259
...of the superhuman and Cupid fati, the will to power should be an affirmation. It is not a property of the strong, but is suitable for all people, strong and weak. It is a generic characteristic of all living beings and no instinct among others, the instincts for their part are only modes of the will to power. Love/Nietzsche/Danto: one of Nietzsche's unique insights is that sex is not practiced primarily for the sake of pleasure or reproduction, but for the sake of power: love means to become entangled in a power struggle; sex is a means of domination and subjugation. The will to power seems to act as a fundamental drive to the individual instincts like the substance to accident.
Substance/will to power/Nietzsche/Danto: The whole world is will to power; there is nothing more fundamental because there is nothing else but him and his modifications. Then the will is a metaphysical, or rather: an ontological term, because 'will to power' is Nietzsche's answer to the question: 'What is there?'
---
Danto III 269
Survival/Nietzsche: According to Nietzsche, whether you preserve yourself or not has nothing to do with the blind exercise of the will to power, which characterizes every thing at every moment. Something survives, insofar as it emerges victoriously from the struggle of the will; but it does not fight to survive - if so, it would be exactly the other way around: Above all, something alive wants to omit its power - life itself is the will to power -: self-preservation is only one of the indirect and most frequent consequences of it. (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI. 2, p. 21).

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Ries II
Wiebrecht Ries
Nietzsche zur Einführung Hamburg 1990

Pfot I
Helmut Pfotenhauer
Die Kunst als Physiologie. Nietzsches ästhetische Theorie und literarische Produktion. Stuttgart 1985

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Reasons Armstrong III 159
Principle of Sufficient Reason/explanation/ArmstrongVsRationalism /VsSchopenhauer/Armstrong: if we accept the principle then we must accept that laws can be brought under laws of a higher level - then again problem that there is no sufficient reasonfor a higher level law. >Explanation/Armstrong, >Laws/Armstrong.

Armstrong I
David M. Armstrong
Meaning and Communication, The Philosophical Review 80, 1971, pp. 427-447
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, Georg Meggle Frankfurt/M. 1979

Armstrong II (a)
David M. Armstrong
Dispositions as Categorical States
In
Dispositions, Tim Crane London New York 1996

Armstrong II (b)
David M. Armstrong
Place’ s and Armstrong’ s Views Compared and Contrasted
In
Dispositions, Tim Crane London New York 1996

Armstrong II (c)
David M. Armstrong
Reply to Martin
In
Dispositions, Tim Crane London New York 1996

Armstrong II (d)
David M. Armstrong
Second Reply to Martin London New York 1996

Armstrong III
D. Armstrong
What is a Law of Nature? Cambridge 1983

Will Nietzsche Danto III 136
Will/Nietzsche/Danto: If it is true that Nietzsche tries to escape the usual distinction between mental and material, then the will to power must seem contradictory. After all, "will" is an expression concerning the spiritual. (See Causality/Nietzsche, I, Ego, Self/Nietzsche, Subject/Nietzsche). Danto: That is not true. As with Schopenhauer, Nietzsche's usual connotations concerning the spiritual are combined with the concept of "will" in the metaphysical sense. The will to power is not limited to the mental. If we do not respect this, we cannot understand Nietzsche.
NietzscheVsActs of Will: Nietzsche attacks the "Acts of Will", which are not only accepted by philosophers.
---
Danto III 137
Acts of Will/Danto: behave to actions like causes to effects. Hume/Danto: Hume rejected the idea that we could have an experience that corresponds to our idea of causal nexus, just how our will becomes active through our body parts or thoughts.
Hume: we have absolutely no idea how the will works. Nevertheless, Hume accepts acts of will.
NietzscheVsHume: is more radial, there is simply nothing that can be proven to be linked to our actions.
---
Danto III 138
Thinking/Certainty/Subject/NietzscheVsDescartes: Nietzsche disproves the Cartesian thought that our own mental processes are immediately transparent, that we know about our way of thinking. He disproves it by setting up a series of interlinked thoughts and letting them "freeze": When Descartes talks about his doubts about reality being at least certain that these are his own doubts, he drags a lot of tacit assumptions with him.
NietzscheVsDescartes: if his argumentation boils down to an "It is thought", our belief in the concept of substance is already assumed and after that a subject is assumed. (F. Nietzsche: Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 577).
---
Danto III 140
Will/NietzscheVsSchopenhauer/Nietzsche/Danto: (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI., 2 p. 25): The philosophers tend to talk about the will as if it were the most known thing in the world; yes, Schopenhauer suggested that the will alone was known to us. DantoVsSchoepenhauer: in reality this is not the case. There is no simple, self-identifiable mental operation that would be recognized as an act of will and intuitively grasped.
Nietzsche: There is no 'will': this is just a simplistic conception of the mind. (F. Nietzsche: Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 913).
---
Danto III 141
Will/Nietzsche: Perhaps the worst of all these fallacies is the conclusion that 'wanting is enough for action' (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI., 2 p. 27). ---
Danto III 143
Will/Nietzsche/Danto: (F. Nietzsche, Götzen-Dämmerung, KGW VI, 3 p. 85): The will does not move any more, therefore it does not explain anything - it merely accompanies processes, it can also be missing. Danto: if there is no will, there is no free or unfree will. (Cf. F. Nietzsche: Nachlass, Berlin, 1999, p. 913).
Freedom of will/Nietzsche/Danto: This conclusion is hasty: the doctrine of free will does not depend at all on a psychological theory about the will as a mental phenomenon; 'free' is applied to actions, but not to the will.
Nietzsche mostly puts the argument about free will on ice, the idea of free will is due to "logical emergency breeding".

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014


Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005

The author or concept searched is found in the following 3 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Schopenhauer, A. Danto Vs Schopenhauer, A. I 304
Schopenhauer: we perceive ourselves quite differently from the world, we are the thing itself, direct access to the will. DantoVsSchopenhauer: Problem, why cannot all people wiggle their ears and why cannot carbohydrate splitting become a matter of will.

Danto I
A. C. Danto
Connections to the World - The Basic Concepts of Philosophy, New York 1989
German Edition:
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Danto III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche as Philosopher: An Original Study, New York 1965
German Edition:
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Danto VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Schopenhauer, A. Verschiedene Vs Schopenhauer, A. Thiel I 84
Ancient mathematics knew no deduction at all, only calculation rules.
I 86
Schopenhauer polemicized against deduction. Picture I 86 gives at a glance more than the Euclidean proof: insight into the matter and inner firm belief of every necessity and of the dependence of that quality on "right angles".
I 87
ThielVsSchopenhauer: of course one will have to say that we do not recognize the facts at a glance, but step by step, by mental rearranging. The figure itself also has generality, but not one that is detached or detachable from the figure, at most one that can be transferred to related figures, namely those constructed according to the same "principle".





T I
Chr. Thiel
Philosophie und Mathematik Darmstadt 1995
Various Authors Heidegger Vs Various Authors I 186
HeideggerVsCatholicism: (against the re-admission of a Catholic student fraternity): "one still does not know the Catholic tactic. And one day this will severely take revenge". Habermas Seyn: spelling in late work, Vs traditional ontology.
I 123
HeideggerVsHerder: there is no general language. >Language/Foucault, Language/Davidson. HeideggerVsPhilosophy: Vs Division into individual areas and thus scientification.
I 171
Subject/Object: HeideggerVs this traditional, space-creating differentiation. Instead: "Walten sui generis". VsDichotomies: Truth/Untruth, - Theory/Practice - Freedom/Necessity - Belief/Wisdom - Divine/Human - Vs Categories constituting totality: Being as substance, happening as consciousness, God as prima causa, will as thing in itself (VsSchopenhauer).
II 36
HeideggerVsLogic: "dissolves in the vortex of an original questioning..."
II 56
Signs/Heidegger: Vs The becoming predominant of the sign character of the word. This must be destroyed. (>Rorty: Sounds become more important, search for original words: Language/Rorty) .
II 66
"Indian thinking": does not need the human. (Heidegger Vs).
II 131
HeideggerVs "culture enterprise". But he respectfully speaks of "culture", no contemporary thinker is "big enough" to bring thinking directly and in a shaped form before his cause and thus on his way. (Spiegel Interview with M. Heidegger: R. Augstein,Der Spiegel Nr. 23, 31. 05. 1976).

Hei III
Martin Heidegger
Sein und Zeit Tübingen 1993