Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]

Screenshot Tabelle Begriffes

 

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

Enhanced Search:
Search term 1: Author or Term Search term 2: Author or Term


together with


The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Observation Language Fraassen I 56
Phenomenon/Fraassen: phenomena are preserved by being shown to be fragments of a larger unit. - VsObservation language: you cannot describe phenomena apart from the rest of the world.

Fr I
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980

Phenomena Fraassen I 2
Phenomenon/Fraassen: does not decide about the truth of hypotheses about atoms. - Def phenomenon: observable processes and structures.
---
I 44
Phenomenon/Newton: should be preserved. - Reality/Newton: is postulated. ---
I 56
Phenomena/Fraassen: preserved by being shown to be fragments of a larger unit. - VsObservation Language: one cannot describe phenomena different from the rest of the world.

Fr I
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980


The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Observation Language Fraassen Vs Observation Language I 56
Empirical Content/Theory/Fraassen: we have seen that we cannot isolate the empirical content of a theory in the interpretation by saying that language consists of two parts (observation language, theoretical terms). That should not surprise us. Phenomenon/Fraassen: the phenomena are preserved if they are proven to be fragments of a larger unit.
FraassenVsObservation Language: it would be very strange if the theories described the phenomena, the observable, in other terms than the rest of the world they describe. A conceptual distinction between the observable and the unobservable is always too easy.

Fr I
B. van Fraassen
The Scientific Image Oxford 1980
Observation Language Peacocke Vs Observation Language I 88
Observational Concepts/Theoretical Concepts/Peacocke: the distinction can be defended. The attacks against it fall into two groups:
1) VsObservational Concepts/some authors: Vs allegedly too casual, arbitrary (permissive) way to make the distinction.
E.g. one and the same device can be seen as an x-ray tube or a Geiger counter.
These concepts enter the representational content. I.e. experience itself represents something as X-ray tube.
So there is no conscious inference taking place!
Theory Ladenness/Hanson/Peacocke: most provocative formulation: that theoretical concepts determine the content of experience; milder formulation: theoretical assumptions can determine some reasons to express a sentence typically classified as observation sentence.
Theoretical Concept/Tradition: X-ray tube is one typically considered a theoretical concept. If it now enters the representational content, it meets certain standard conditions for observability.
Observability: again depends on the ability (sophistication) of the observer.
2) VsDistinction Observational Concepts/Theoretical Concepts: the classical approach to observability is empty: nothing really fulfills the conditions. In reality, theoretical considerations do indeed play a role.
Both criticisms can be represented together, although that means claiming that the distinction simultaneously goes too far and not far enough.

Peacocke I
Chr. R. Peacocke
Sense and Content Oxford 1983

Peacocke II
Christopher Peacocke
"Truth Definitions and Actual Languges"
In
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell Oxford 1976