Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 7 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Capabilities Nussbaum Brocker I 895
Capabilities/Nussbaum: Nussbaum wants central human capabilities to be understood as specific political goals in the context of political order. As political goals, they stand beyond particular metaphysical justifications and can therefore be regarded as the basis of basic constitutional principles. In this way, capabilities can become the object of an "overarching consensus". ...the state is indeed obliged to enable each individual to exercise the basic capabilities, but the actual realization is left to each individual.
Brocker I 896
Nussbaum basically focuses on the question of possibilities/skills instead of actual satisfaction.(1)
Brocker I 901
Capabilities Approach/Nussbaum: (for problems, see Universalism/Nussbaum); its task is twofold: 1. to enable comparability of the quality of life of different people in different contexts; 2. to establish an overarching normative basis that allows core areas of human functioning to be determined and thus certain capabilities that must be guaranteed for every citizen in every nation in political contexts.(2) VsNussbaum: Question: Doesn't Nussbaum introduce here an implicit reference to "human nature" that pushes her into the risky direction of metaphysical realism?
NussbaumVsVs: Nussbaum does not assume a neutral observer who judges the facts of human life from an external perspective. Rather, she pleads for an internal reconstruction of knowledge about ourselves: We can only understand and comprehend ourselves from ourselves and against the background of shared experiences (cf. Pauer-Studer 1999, 10 f.).(3)
Brocker I 902
It is crucial that the liberal basic principle of "each person as an end", aggravated by the "principle of each person's capability"(4), is recognised. The recognition of this principle is reflected in the fact that it is not certain lifestyles that are to be defined, but rather abilities and spheres of action that are to be guaranteed in order to allow people the free choice of how they perceive these possibilities. Functional abilities of the human being: See >Functions/Nussbaum.
Brocker I 903
f.). Nussbaum understands the capabilities approach as a theory of basic conditions, not as a full theory of justice. A complete theory would require a more clearly marked approach to determining the threshold level of capabilities.(5) Three categories of abilities/Nussbaum: a) basic capabilities, b) internal capabilities, c) combined capabilities. (Interaction with external conditions).(6) Cf. rights/Nussbaum.


1. Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development. The Capabilities Approach, Cambridge 2000, p, 12.
2. Ibid. p.71
3. H. Pauer-Studer 1999, »Einleitung«, in: Martha C. Nussbaum, Gerechtigkeit oder das gute Leben, Frankfurt/M. 1999, 7-23., p.10f 4. Nussbaum ibid. p.74
5. ibid. p. 12
6. ibid. p.84

Sandra Seubert, „Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development (2000)“, in:Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Ethics Nussbaum Seel III 113
Morality/ethics/Nussbaum/SeelVsNussbaum: twiddles up as a governess: Children should cherish more good and less bad thoughts - instead: reflected moral practice.


Seel I
M. Seel
Die Kunst der Entzweiung Frankfurt 1997

Seel II
M. Seel
Ästhetik des Erscheinens München 2000

Seel III
M. Seel
Vom Handwerk der Philosophie München 2001
Good Nussbaum Brocker I 895
Good/the Good/Nussbaum: "strong vague conception of the good": VsNussbaum: the critique of it essentially refers to its Aristotle interpretation and the question of the essentialism of its conception of the good (Sturma 2000)(1). 2. VsNussbaum: Furthermore, it is about an implicit tension between a vague theory of the good, which wants to know a wide scope of decision guaranteed for the actual exercise of the basic cabilities, and a certain conception richer in content, which orients itself at the actual functioning ("true human functioning").(2)(3)(4)



1. Dieter Sturma, »Universalismus und Neoaristotelismus. Amartya Sen und Martha C. Nussbaum über Ethik und soziale Gerechtigkeit«, in: Wolfgang Kersting (Hg.), Politische Philosophie des Sozialstaats, Weilerswist 2000, 257-292.
2. Anne Phillips »Feminism and Liberalism Revisited. Has Martha Nussbaum Got it Right?«, in: Constellations 8/2, 2001, 249-266.
3 . Nikita Dhawan »Zwischen Empire und Empower. Dekolonisierung und Demokratisierung«, in: Femina Politica 2, 2009, 52-63
4. Ian Carter, »Is the Capability Approach Paternalist?«, in: Economics and Philosophy 30/1, 2014, 75-98.



Sandra Seubert, „Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development (2000)“, in:Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Liberty Nussbaum Brocker I 891
Freedom/NussbaumVsSen/Nussbaum: More than Amartya Sen, Nussbaum is concerned with defining a core of certain "capabilities" as an indispensable basic asset. In other words: to "substantial" behaves "procedural" as a counter-concept. (1) SenVsVs/SenVsNussbaum/Dierksmeier: But it was precisely the highlight of Sen's "substantive freedom" that the procedural and participatory moment was by no means pushed to the periphery, but rather moved to the centre. See >Freedom/Sen, >Capabilities/Sen.



1. Martha C. Nussbaum, Not for Profit. Why Democracy Needs the Humanities, Princeton 2010, S. 18


Claus Dierksmeier, „Amartya Sen, Ökonomie für den Menschen (1999)“ in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Life Nussbaum Mause I 200f
Life/Sen/Nussbaum: What is a fulfilled life is examined by the "capability approach" of Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen. See Life/Nussbaum, Life/Sen. NussbaumVsDistributive Justice/SenVsDistributive Justice: With its focus on practical lifestyles, the empowerment approach criticizes classical theories of justice, which ask about the distribution of rights, duties, freedoms, financial and material goods, but do not problematize whether and to what extent persons can make use of these rights and financial and material goods at all. The question is whether people are able to use goods and rights at all through education or social skills.
A good life is not significantly defined by financial or material aspects. It is about good and meaningful work, health, resilient social relationships or education. (1)
VsSen/VsNussbaum: the approach of Nussbaum and Sen has to deal with the accusation of essentialism and paternalism. Shifting the focus to a good and fulfilled life entails the danger of tipping over into normative prescriptions.
Problem: the idea of a good life is shaped by a certain culturally dependent model, but at the same time should be made culturally binding. (2)(3)
SenVsVs/NussbaumVsVs: Representatives of the capability approach counter that it is not the modes of operation as such that are the good to be promoted, but the instrumental and constitutive freedoms that increase freedom of choice with regard to the form of life. (4)


1. Martha Nussbaum, Gerechtigkeit oder Das gute Leben. Frankfurt a. M. 1999, S 200ff.
2. Christiane Scherer, Das menschliche und das gute menschliche Leben. Martha Nussbaum über Essentialismus und menschliche Fähigkeiten. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 41, (5) 1993, S. 905-920.
3. Wolfgang Kersting, Gerechtigkeitstheorien. In Studienbuch Politikwissenschaft, Hrsg. Manfred G. Schmidt, Frieder Wolf und Stefan Wurster, Wiesbaden 2013 S. 131-159.
4. Otto, Hans-Uwe, und Holger Ziegler, Der Capabilities-Ansatz als neue Orientierung in der Erziehungswissenschaft. In Capabilities – Handlungsbefähigung und Verwirklichungschancen in der Erziehungswissenschaft, Hrsg. Hans-Uwe Otto und Holger Ziegler, Wiesbaden 2010, S. 9-13.


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Life Sen Mause I 200f
Life/Sen/Nussbaum: What is a fulfilled life is examined by the "capability approach" of Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen. See Life/Nussbaum. NussbaumVsDistributive Justice/SenVsDistributive Justice: With its focus on practical lifestyles, the empowerment approach criticizes classical theories of justice, which ask about the distribution of rights, duties, freedoms, financial and material goods, but do not problematize whether and to what extent persons can make use of these rights and financial and material goods at all. The question is whether people are able to use goods and rights at all through education or social skills.
A good life is not significantly defined by financial or material aspects. It is about good and meaningful work, health, resilient social relationships or education. (1)
VsSen/VsNussbaum: the approach of Nussbaum and Sen has to deal with the accusation of essentialism and paternalism. Shifting the focus to a good and fulfilled life entails the danger of tipping over into normative prescriptions.
Problem: the idea of a good life is shaped by a certain culturally dependent model, but at the same time should be made culturally binding. (2)(3)
SenVsVs/NussbaumVsVs: Representatives of the capability approach counter that it is not the modes of operation as such that are the good to be promoted, but the instrumental and constitutive freedoms that increase freedom of choice with regard to the form of life. (4)


1. Martha Nussbaum, Gerechtigkeit oder Das gute Leben. Frankfurt a. M. 1999, S 200ff.
2. Christiane Scherer, Das menschliche und das gute menschliche Leben. Martha Nussbaum über Essentialismus und menschliche Fähigkeiten. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 41, (5) 1993, S. 905-920.
3. Wolfgang Kersting, Gerechtigkeitstheorien. In Studienbuch Politikwissenschaft, Hrsg. Manfred G. Schmidt, Frieder Wolf und Stefan Wurster, Wiesbaden 2013 S. 131-159.
4. Otto, Hans-Uwe, und Holger Ziegler, Der Capabilities-Ansatz als neue Orientierung in der Erziehungswissenschaft. In Capabilities – Handlungsbefähigung und Verwirklichungschancen in der Erziehungswissenschaft, Hrsg. Hans-Uwe Otto und Holger Ziegler, Wiesbaden 2010, S. 9-13.

EconSen I
Amartya Sen
Collective Choice and Social Welfare: Expanded Edition London 2017


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Paternalism Nussbaum Brocker I 909
Paternalism/VsNussbaum/Nussbaum: From a feminist perspective, but also in the context of development cooperation, a paternalistic, authoritarian potential of their theory is criticized (Phillips 2001(1); Dhawan 2009(2); Carter 2014(3)). The main issue here is an implicit tension between a vague theory of the good, which wants a wide scope for decision-making for the actual exercise of the basic capabilities to be guaranteed, and a certain, more content-rich conception, which is oriented towards the actual functioning ("true human functioning").


1. Anne Phillips »Feminism and Liberalism Revisited. Has Martha Nussbaum Got it Right?«, in: Constellations 8/2, 2001, 249-266.
2. Nikita Dhawan »Zwischen Empire und Empower. Dekolonisierung und Demokratisierung«, in: Femina Politica 2, 2009, 52-63
3. Ian Carter, »Is the Capability Approach Paternalist?«, in: Economics and Philosophy 30/1, 2014, 75-98.


Sandra Seubert, „Martha C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development (2000)“, in:Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018

The author or concept searched is found in the following theses of an allied field of specialization.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Moral Nussbaum, M. Seel Nussbaum, Martha: (Chicago) VsWilliams: falsches Bild moralischer Theorie, Unterschätzung ihres Nutzens.
III 112/113
Sie entwickelt allgemeine Hinsichten der moralischen Beurteilung, die eine sensible Anwendung moralischer Regeln zu leiten vermögen: "die Durchschnittspraxis auf ein höheres Niveau zu heben". These: unser Alltagsleben steckt bereits voller Theorien über das Gute. Ihre Qualität ist aber häufig dubios. Einige handeln von der Minderwertigkeit von Frauen und Schwarzen.
III 113
Moral/Ethik/Nussbaum/SeelVsNussbaum: sie macht einem die Zustimmung schwer, weil sie ihrer eigenen liberalen Moraltheorie widerspricht - spielt sich als Gouvernante auf: Kinder sollten mehr gut und weniger schlechte Gedanken hegen. - Seel: Stattdessen: reflektierte moralische Praxis.
III 114
Viele konkrete Antworten müssen der moralischen Praxis und ihrer Reflexion überlassen bleiben, wie die Aristotelikerin Nussbaum eigentlich wissen sollte. Ihre Rolle als Erzieherin der Menschheit ist moralischer Kitsch.