Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Liberty Sen Brocker I 880
Freedom/Sen: "substantive freedom": a theory of political together and for each other, which justifies cosmopolitan duties of the currently living people towards their fellow world, environment and posterity from the principle of individual freedom.
Brocker I 884
The foundation of our social reality must be the free choice of everyone on the value and worth of their options. Economics must therefore be conceived from the idea of freedom.(1) See >Markets/Sen. Sen therefore wants to clarify the question of suitable parameters for economic success through social debates and "public discussion"(2). Econometric goals should be defined democratically - and not vice versa technocratic measures should dictate economic policy.
Instead of hiding economic value measures in the premises and axioms of econometrics, they should be made visible, discussed in public and approved or rejected by "responsible social choice".(3) Which values and goals should take precedence must be renegotiated from society to society, from place to place and from time to time - in the interest of freedom. >Utilitarianism/Sen.
Brocker I 886
Freedom manifests itself not only in a choice between (given) alternatives, but always also in the choice of (potentially better) alternatives and in the search for them. Therefore Sen appreciates the tradition of the theories of "positive freedom".(4) SenVsNeoliberalism: misunderstanding theories of negative freedom, says Sen, that it is often less a matter of private control over spheres of action than of their design.
Brocker I 887
Sen does, however, form a coalition with defenders of negative freedom in so far as he, like this dictatorship, rejects any kind of happiness dictatorship that promises people life chances at the expense of their civic freedoms. The right to property and ownership, for example, may in no case be treated as equivalent to the right not to be tortured or killed. (5) Such differentiations, however, are denied if libertarians treat both rights equally as "ancillary conditions" of individual freedom. >Neoliberalism/Sen.
SenVsNozick: a freedom protection that only pays attention to procedures, never to final results, can produce counter-intuitive results.
I 888
Negative Freedom/Sen: Why (...) is the theory of negative freedom still so widespread despite its obvious shortcomings? A purely formal concept of freedom is easier to quantify and fit into a mathematized economy. One simply counts options and identifies every increase in them as a gain in freedom. SenVsNegative Freedom: Every election decision must "not only be judged in terms of the number of available choices, but its attractiveness must also be assessed".(6) A purely formal theory of freedom therefore runs nowhere.
Brocker I 889
Not only are a few good options certainly preferable to a selection from countless hideous possibilities; often it is quantitative reduction that leads to qualitative improvement of options. (7) Having access to meaningful options also clearly stands and falls with the possibility of evaluating one's own preferences and life chances in coordination with others and changing them in collaboration with them. Tripartite Freedom Model/Sen: 1. aspect of possibility, which focuses on our life chances, 2. aspect of process: examines how these come about. 3. "substantive freedom": here these two aspects are combined.
Def Essential Freedom/Sen: 1. political freedom, 2. economic institutions, 3. social opportunities, 4. transparency guarantees and 5. social security(8).



1. Amartya Sen, Ökonomie für den Menschen. Wege zu Gerechtigkeit und Solidarität in der Marktwirtschaft, München 2000, S. 44
2. Ibid. p. 100.
3. Ibid. p. 137
4. A.Sen, Rationality and Freedom, Cambridge, Mass./London 2002, S. S. 509
5. Ibid. p. 636
6. Sen 2000 p. 146
7. Sen 2002, p. 602 8. Sen 2000, p. 52-54

Claus Dierksmeier, „Amartya Sen, Ökonomie für den Menschen (1999)“ in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

EconSen I
Amartya Sen
Collective Choice and Social Welfare: Expanded Edition London 2017


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Neoliberalism Sen Brocker I 886
Neoliberalism/SenVsNeoliberalism/Sen: Misunderstanding theories of negative freedom, says Sen, are often less a matter of private control over spheres of action than of their design. Instead: Freedom manifests itself not only through a choice between (given) alternatives, but also in the choice of (potentially better) alternatives and in the search for them. That is why Sen appreciates the tradition of the theories of "positive freedom".(1) In Sens's eyes, the primary distinction relevant to freedom is therefore not quantitative (as a plus or minus to
Brocker I 887
state authority), but qualitative: It depends on how and for what purpose that violence is used. Only secondary to these considerations can their quantitative measure be plausibly discussed. Sen does, however, form a coalition with defenders of negative freedom to the extent that he, like this dictatorship of happiness, rejects any kind of dictatorship that promises people life chances at the expense of their civic freedoms.


1. A.Sen, Rationality and Freedom, Cambridge, Mass./London 2002, S. 509


Claus Dierksmeier, „Amartya Sen, Ökonomie für den Menschen (1999)“ in: Manfred Brocker (Hg.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018

EconSen I
Amartya Sen
Collective Choice and Social Welfare: Expanded Edition London 2017


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018
Neoliberalism Crouch Mause I 73f
Neoliberalism/Crouch: Crouch does not use the term "neoliberalism" in the sense of economic theory. The process of post-democratization (see Post-Democracy/Crouch) is attributed to the influence of neoliberalism. Crouch thesis: Neoliberalism gives economic interests priority over the welfare state and an egalitarian understanding of the common good, and sees the free market as the best means of satisfying individual and social needs.
CrouchVsNeoliberalism: "Overlap": Market economy logic is no longer used only in the sphere of economy, but also in the political and social sphere. (1)


1. C. Crouch, Das befremdliche Überleben des Neoliberalismus. Frankfurt a. M. 2011, S. 153f.

PolCrouch I
Colin Crouch
Henry Farrell
Breaking the path of institutional development? Alternatives to the new determinism 2004

PolCrouch II
Colin Crouch
Post-democracy London 2004


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018