Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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Ecology Naess Singer I 251
Ecology/Naess, Arne/Singer, P.: (A. Naess, "The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement", Inquiry 16 (1973), pp. 95-100): Definition Shallow Ecology/Naess: is limited to the traditional framework of ethics: this is about not polluting water, for example, in order to have enough drinking water and to avoid pollution, so that one can continue to enjoy nature. On the other hand,
Definition Deep Ecology/Naess: wants to preserve the biosphere for its own sake, regardless of the potential benefit to mankind.
Deep Ecology/Naess/Singer, P.: thus takes as its subject matter larger units than the individual: species, ecosystems and even the biosphere as a whole.
Deep Ecology: (A. Naess and George Sessions, "Basic Principles of Deep Ecology", Ecophilosophy, 6 (1984) Principles:
1. The wellbeing and development of human and non-human life on earth have a value in itself (intrinsic, inherent value), regardless of the non-human world's use for human purposes.
2. Wealth and diversity of life forms contribute to the realization of these values and are values in themselves.
3. People do not have the right to diminish the wealth and diversity of the world, except when it comes to vital interests.
Singer I 252
Biosphere/Naess/Sessions/Singer, P.: Sessions and Naess use the term "Biosphere" in a broad sense, so that rivers, landscapes and ecosystems are also included. P. SingerVsNaess: (see also SingerVsSessions): the ethics of deep ecology does not provide satisfactory answers to the value of the life of individuals. Maybe that is the wrong question. Ecology is more about systems than individual organisms. Therefore, ecological ethics should be related to species and ecosystems.
Singer I 253
So there is a kind of Holism behind it. This is shown by Lawrence Johnson (L. Johnson, A Morally Deep World, Cambridge, 1993). Johnson's thesis: The interests of species are different from the sum of individual interests and exist simultaneously together with individual interests within our moral considerations.

Naess I
Arne Naess
Can Knowledge Be Reached? Inquiry 1961, S. 219-227
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk Frankfurt/M. 1977

SingerP I
Peter Singer
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011

SingerP II
P. Singer
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015
Knowledge Naess Arne Naess Kann man Wissen erreichen? in Skirbekk, Hrsg, "Wahrheitstheorien" Frankfurt, 1996

I 398
Knowledge/Naess: (E.g. About the apple in front of me) when I am drunk, I might grasp at nothing. In our search for knowledge there is no such thing. An increase of evidence can perhaps be estimated or even measured, but not an approach to knowledge. The gripping does not happen but this does not comply with the grasp at nothing. The distance between the truth (sic) and reaching the truth cannot be accurately determined. From the side of proving there can be no zero point determined. ((s) VsNaess: Naess oscillates between approaching knowledge and approaching truth.)

Naess I
Arne Naess
Can Knowledge Be Reached? Inquiry 1961, S. 219-227
Wahrheitstheorien, Gunnar Skirbekk Frankfurt/M. 1977