Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 3 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Goedel Dennett I 602
Mind/Goedel/Dennett: Goedel himself seemed to deem the "sky hook" necessary as an explanation for the human mind. Goedel: certain truths can be "seen" but never proved. (> Proof).
I 605
Goedel Figure: it is possible to arrange all sorts of axiomatic systems in alphabetical order. DennettVsGoedel: Problem: how can you find out whether a mathematician proved a sentence or has only made ​​a sound like a parrot? (Behavior).
J.R.Lucas, 1961: the crucial property should be "to represent a sentence as true".
DennettVsLucas: but this faces insurmountable problems of interpretation.
Goedel/Toshiba Library/Dennett: "there is no single algorithm that can prove all the truths of arithmetics". Dennett: Goedel says nothing about all the other algorithms in the library.

Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild Frankfurt/M. 2005

Macroeconomics Keynesianism Mause I 58
Macroeconomics/Keynesianism/VsLucas/VsMuth: In the mid-1980s, the New Keynesian Macroeconomics emerged as a reaction to the inability of the New Classical Macroeconomics to deal sensibly with macroeconomic problems. New: Task of the equilibrium hypothesis.
Market imperfections or market imbalances are expressly taken into account and are micro-economically explained. Three approaches:
1. Theories based on real price rigidities;
2. Theories investigating nominal price rigidities
3. Theories dealing with a possible failure of decentralized coordination.

Mause I 70
Macroeconomics/Keynesianism/Post-Keynesianism: Although the New Keynesian Macroeconomics takes up certain elements of Post-Keynesianism (e.g. the assumption of the imperfection of markets), it adheres to the neoclassical paradigm in other respects so that one can by no means speak of a replacement of Post-Keynesianism by the New Classical Macroeconomy.


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018
Macroeconomics Muth Mause I 57f
Macroeconomics/MacroeconomicsVsMonetarism/MacroeconomicsVsKeynesianism/Muth/Lucas: Problems of monetarism or Keynesianism are the lack of explanation of wage and price rigidities or wage and price formation at all, or the arbitrary approach in modeling the expectations of economic entities. Ultimately, there was a lack of a microeconomic foundation for macroeconomics. The new Classical Macroeconomics, of which John F. Muth (1930-2005) and Robert E. Lucas (born 1937) are the main representatives tried to close this gap. Two assumptions are fundamental to this approach: On the one hand, it is assumed that expectations are rational, i.e. that the modelled economic entities utilize all information inherent in the model and therefore arrive at the same forecasts as the model itself. On the other hand, price flexibility and the permanent equilibrium of the markets are assumed. Accordingly, fluctuations in production and employment are not interpreted as imbalances but as a sequence of equilibrium positions.
New Classical Macroeconomics Thesis: There is no involuntary unemployment!
VsMuth/VsLucas/VsMacroeconomics: the macroeconomic problems observed were more or less defined away. There was no real foundation through a microeconomic approach.


Mause I
Karsten Mause
Christian Müller
Klaus Schubert,
Politik und Wirtschaft: Ein integratives Kompendium Wiesbaden 2018

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Artificial Intelligence Verschiedene Vs Artificial Intelligence Dennett I 600
Some authors (e.g. Penrose) claim: Gödel has proved that no AI (artificial intelligence) is possible. DennettVs.
Dennett I 604
J.R.Lucas, 1961: the decisive property should be "to represent a sentence as true". DennettVsLucas: but this encounters insurmountable interpretation problems.
AI/"strong AI"/VsAI/Artificial Intelligence/Reference/Dennett: newer version of the critique VsStrong AI: the so-called problem of "symbol anchoring": for large AI programs it is okay to have data structures that pretend to refer to Chicago, milk or the "person I'm talking to", but such an imaginary reference is, according to this way of thinking, not the same as real reference. (Harnad, 1990)
The internal "symbols" are not adequately "anchored" in the world.
((s) Instead of Chicago the program actually refers to e.g. "1oo1o111oo1...".)
Problem: Name/object, mention/usage, anchoring: we too are constantly talking about things we do not even know.
DennettVsVs: for our robot the problem is solved by meeting things in his "childhood". This leads at most to the parallel question of how far the reference of the word "Chicago" is anchored in the idiolect of the little child.
Metz II 710
HaugelandVsArtificial Intelligence/VsArtificial Intelligence: artificial intelligence cannot know what real pain is. DennettVsHaugeland: this leads to the problem that we would have to assume that primitive organisms like flies or shells do not "know what real pain is".
Meg I 270
KambartelVsNeurocybernetics/MalcolmVsNeurocybernetics/Tetens: many authors oriented towards Wittgenstein deny that human behaviour can be described as physiologically caused without gaps.
Tetens IV 157
HungerlandVs"inductive view" of artificial intelligence: false generalization: that people generally believe what they say.





Dennett I
D. Dennett
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
German Edition:
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Dennett II
D. Dennett
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
German Edition:
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Dennett III
Daniel Dennett
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
In
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996

Dennett IV
Daniel Dennett
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
In
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild Frankfurt/M. 2005

Tetens I
H. Tetens
Geist, Gehirn, Maschine Stuttgart 1994

W VII
H. Tetens
Tractatus - Ein Kommentar Stuttgart 2009