Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 4 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Abstraction Thiel T I 67
Abstraction/Aristotle/Felix Klein: Summary of onjects - modern: creation of mathematical universality - Example: elliptic equation - ThielVsKlein: this assumption is based on the assumption of the conditions that we had imposed on the values of a, b, c
T I 131
Abstraction: change from structure to structure

T I
Chr. Thiel
Philosophie und Mathematik Darmstadt 1995

Argumentation Habermas III 38
Argumentation/Habermas: We call argumentation the type of speech in which the participants thematize controversial claims of validity and try to redeem or criticize them with arguments. An argument contains reasons that are systematically linked with the claim to validity of a problematic statement. The "strength" of an argument is measured, in a given context, by the validity of the reasons; this is shown, among other things, by whether an argument can convince the participants of a discourse, i. e. can motivate them to accept the respective claim to validity. Rationality: against this background, can be judged according to how a subject behaves as a participant in argumentation. Rational statements can also be improved due to their critical nature.
III 45
The logic of argumentation does not refer to the formal, consequent connections between semantic units (sentences) but to internal, also non-deductive relations between pragmatic units (speech acts) from which arguments are composed.
III 47
Three aspects: 1. resembles an argumentation of a communication under ideal conditions, which represents a situation to be characterized as an ideal speech situation. General symmetry conditions must be reconstructed here, which every competent speaker must presume to be sufficiently fulfilled.
III 48
2. The procedure is a specially regulated form of interaction of the division of labour between the proponent and the opponent. A claim of validity is discussed here in a situation that is relieved of the pressure of action and experience, in which claims are examined with reasons and only with reasons. 3. Argumentation is designed to produce valid arguments.
Definition Argument/Habermas: Arguments are those means by means of which intersubjective recognition for the initially hypothetically raised claim of validity of a proponent can be achieved and thus opinion can be transformed into knowledge. See Arguments/Toulmin.
III 55
HabermasVsKlein, Wolfgang (1): Klein wants to draw up the logic of argumentation as a nomological theory and must therefore assimilate rules to causal regularities and reasons to causes.
III 56
HabermasVs: on the other hand, with Toulmin we have to allow a plurality of claims of validity without at the same time denying the critical, space-time and social restrictions transcending sense of validity.
III 57
We cannot judge the strength of arguments (...) if we do not understand the meaning of the respective action. (2)
III 339
Argumentation/Reason/Justification/Habermas: Arguments or reasons have at least these in common that they, and only they, can unfold the power of rational motivation under the communicative prerequisites of a cooperative examination of hypothetical claims to validity. However, in typical forms of argumentation (depending on the claim to validity of propositional truth, normative correctness, truthfulness and authenticity).

1. W. Klein, Argumentation und Argument in. Z. f. Litwiss. u. Ling. H, 38/39, 1980, p. 49f.
2. St. Toulmin, R. Rieke, A. Janik, An Introduction to Reasoning, N.Y. 1979, p.15.

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Arguments Toulmin Habermas III 48
Argument/Toulmin/Habermas: According to Toulmin (1), arguments have the following elements: 1. a problematic statement for which a claim of validity is made (conclusion)
2. the reason (ground) with which this claim is to be established.
3. the ground is won (warrant) by means of a rule (a final rule, a principle, a law, etc.).
4. This is based on evidence of various kinds (backing).
If necessary, the validity claim must be modified or restricted (modifyer).
Habermas III 49
The well-known disciplines of the Aristotelian canon correspond to this: rhetoric deals with argumentation as a process, dialectics with pragmatic procedures and logic with their products.
III 50
Habermas: it turns out, however, that the separation cannot be maintained. (HabermasVsKlein, Wolfgang, See W. Klein, Argumentation and Argument in. Z. f. Litwiss. U. Ling. H, 38/39,1980, p. 9ff).

1.St. Toulmin, R. Rieke, A. Janik, An Introduction to Reasoning, N.Y. 1979, p. 106

Toulmin I
St. Toulmin
The Uses of Argument Cambridge 2003


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Jobs Klein Brocker I 935
Jobs/Naomi Klein: while factories are moving abroad ((s) into cheaper regions), "on the way abroad, they turn into something completely different, namely 'contracts' awarded to a contractor. The latter may subcontract them to up to ten subcontractors.(1) The brand companies of the global North do not invest, they pass on the costs of production to others. This is not about job export. It is about escaping from the role of the employer.(2)
LedbetterVsKlein, Naomi: she had no idea of macro economics when she lamented the loss of jobs on the American labour market(3). She had overlooked the importance of increasing productivity in production as well as the important role of small enterprises, which had contributed much more to employment growth in the USA than the large brand companies.
KleinVsVs: the central thesis for her is that with the transformation of the employment relationship, production relationships have also changed.
Klein: the intensified alienation of labour, the direct exploitation of human labour and the flight of "employers" from their duties and responsibilities have led to the fact that "not even the classic Marxist separation between workers and factory owners is working properly"(4).


1. Naomi Klein, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies, Toronto 2000. (Tenth Anniversary Edition with a New Introduction by the Author, New York 32010.) Dt.: Naomi Klein, No Logo! Der Kampf der Global Players um Marktmacht – Ein Spiel mit vielen Verlierern und wenigen Gewinnern, Frankfurt/M. 2015 (zuerst 2001) p. 205
2. Ibid. p. 235
3. James Ledbetter »Brand Names«, in: The New York Times, 23. April 2000. 4. Klein ibid. p. 232


Christine Bauhardt, „Naomi Klein, No Logo! (2000)“ in: Manfred Brocker (ed.) Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Abstraction Verschiedene Vs Abstraction Thiel I 67
Abstraction: Felix Klein highlights the difference between the aristotelian "abstraction" as a summary of the common properties to the objects and the
"Abstraction" as a production of mathematical generality.
---
I 70
E.g. Ellipse equation
ax² + 2bxy + cy² = 1
ThielVsKlein: Misunderstanding: the generality of the ellipse equation is based on the generality of the conditions which we had placed on the used values of the variables a, b, c.





T I
Chr. Thiel
Philosophie und Mathematik Darmstadt 1995