|Disputed term/author/ism||Author Vs Author
|Grice, P.H.||Black Vs Grice, P.H.
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Max Black: Causal theory (also Stevenson, Morris) - BlackVsIntentionality theories (Grice, Searle, Strawson?).
BlackVsGrice: The conditions of Grice are neither necessary nor sufficient. a) Not sufficient: there are situations in which it is not true that someone "says that...", although the conditions are met, b) not necessary: someone says something, although the conditions are not met.
The whole theory becomes suspicious when it is so complicated.
BlackVsGrice: he must constantly make modifications (negative conjunctions or corresponding positive disjunctions). This defensive strategy is too flexible on the one hand, while being too rigid on the other hand. (Sticking to the intended effect).
BlackVsGrice: Insufficient: 1) His reference to standard effects - 2) his confidence that the speaker’s intention brings about such effects.
BlackVsGrice: Every concrete manifestation usually has numerous effects. One would have to be "semantically relevant". The one that is necessary and sufficient to be communicated successfully. ((s) VsBlack: this is trivial and does not explain what is going on in successful communication or what is meant by an utterance).
BlackVsGrice: a belief of the listener or a prop. att. induced in the listener are apparently perlocutionary. They are of practical importance, but irrelevant for a philosophical analysis of the concept of communication or the derived concept of speaker meaning.
This applies mutatis mutandis also to the imperative case. When I have understood the request, my role as a listener and interpreter ends!. BlackVsGrice: he does not discuss how according to the principles of the basic model it can be expected of the listener that he discovers the speaker meaning. E.g. a beggar in a foreign country gestures to me that he is hungry.
BlackVsGrice: no interposition of "discovering". - (The theory must cover as many cases as possible.) BlackVsGrice Thesis: not detecting the speaker’s intention to elicit an effect in the listener allows the listener to determine the meaning, but rather the reverse: the discovery of the speaker meaning allows the listener to infer the speaker’s intention.
Bedeutung und Intention
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979
Sprache München 1973
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983
|Intentionality||Black Vs Intentionality
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VsIntentionality theory: it tries (falsely) to explain the speaker meaning through recourse to a separable and independently characterizable reaction. Black: There is no standard reaction.
Intention/Black: certainly there could be no understanding and speaker if it there were no primitive situations in which it is recognized that a speaker has the intention to convince a listener.
VsIntentionality: but it is a mistake to view this observation as evidence for the correctness of intentionalist analysis: The same error as confusing rule utilitarianism with act utilitarianism. It is possible that moral practices serve the purpose of the greatest happiness for the greatest number, but it does not follow that the moral justification of individual actions depends on whether they directly contribute to the maximization of happiness.
I Black Bedeutung und Intention aus "Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung Georg Meggle (Hrsg) Frankf/M 1979
II Black Sprache München 1973
III Black The Prevalence of Humbug ornell University Press Ithaka/London 1983
|Various Authors||Baudrillard Vs Various Authors
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Vsintentionality theory: tried (falsely) to explain the speaker meaning by recourse to a separable and independently characterizable reaction. Black: There is no standard reaction.
Simulacra and Simulation (Body, in Theory: Histories) Ann Arbor 1994
Der symbolische Tausch und der Tod Berlin 2009