Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

Screenshot Tabelle Begriffes


Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

Enhanced Search:
Search term 1: Author or Term Search term 2: Author or Term

together with

The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
System Theory Weizenbaum I 322
System theory/Forrester/Weizenbaum: J. W. Forrester from MIT, the spiritual father of "cybernetic system theory", noted in front of a US Congress Committee (J. W. Forrester Testimony before the Subcommitee on Urban Growth oft he Committe on Banking and Currency oft he United States House of Representatives, given in Washington, D. C., Oct. 7, 1971, 91st Congress, 2nd Session, Part III, p 205-265): Thesis: the human thinking is not suitable to explain the behavior of social systems. WeizenbaumVsForrester: he claims that the way Plato, Spinoza, Hume, Mill, Gandi and many others have thought about social systems is inferior to the system analysis method. According to Forrester, the problem is that human thinking is based on thought models.
Forrester: a model of thought is unclear. It is incomplete. It is inaccurately worded. In addition, a thought model in an individual changes with time and even in the course of a talk ... The goals are different and remain unspoken.
I 324
Forrester/Weizenbaum: claims that computer systems, in contrast to social systems, eliminate insecurity completely. But there are some behaviors that are "more desirable" than others. How are they made possible? Forrester: they are probably only possible if we have a proper understanding of the theory of dynamic systems and are prepared to submit to self-discipline and endure the constraints that must accompany the desired behaviour.
WeizenbaumVsForrester/WeizenbaumVsSkinner/WeizenbaumVsSimon: in the context in which Forrester uses the expressions "system" and "dynamic", the only way to gain an understanding that alone leads to "desirable behaviours" is the method of a "scientific analysis" according to Forrester (or Skinner or the >General Problem Solver (see A. Newell/H.A. Simon)
I 325
WeizenbaumVsForrester: For Forrester, the world literally consists of back coupling loops. ---
I 327
Meaning/System Theory/WeizenbaumVsForrester: the systems we have investigated, have been clearly shown that meaning has been completely transformed into function.

Weizenbaum I
Joseph Weizenbaum
Computer Power and Human Reason. From Judgment to Calculation, W. H. Freeman & Comp. 1976
German Edition:
Die Macht der Computer und die Ohnmacht der Vernunft Frankfurt/M. 1978

Universals Forrest Bigelow I 89
Strukturelle Universalien/Peter Forrest/Bigelow/Pargetter: (ähnlich wie unsere Relationen höherer Stufe): Forrest: These: es gibt eine quasi-mereologische n-stellige Operation die n Quasi-Teile nimmt und sie zu einem Quasi-Ganzen zusammensetzt:
Operation ‹a1,…an› = an+1.

Bigelow/Pargetter: das ist äquivalent dazu, dass es bei uns eine (n+1)–stellige Relation gibt:

R(a1,…an, an+1).
BigelowVsForrest: unsere Differenzen liegen darin, dass wir die Quasi-Mereologie nicht akzeptieren.

Entailments/VsBigelow: man könnte einwenden, dass wir die Entailments zwischen Eigenschaften der 1. Ebene durch Appell an Eigenschaften höherer Stufe erklärt haben.
Dabei haben wir praktisch vorausgesetzt., dass zwischen diesen auch Entailments bestehen. (zirkulär).
I 90
Bsp Notwendig (Methan sein) R (Kohlenstoff sein)

Entailment: dann gilt wegen dieser Relation das Entailment, zwischen dem Methan-sein von etwas und der Tatsache, dass dieses Ding eine Teil hat, der Kohlenstoff ist:

(I) Notwendig, für jedes F und G, wenn (F) R (G), dann hat jede Instanz von F einen Teil, der eine Instanz von G ist.

Das Prinzip (I) involviert Notwendigkeit. Diese muss in dem Wesen der Universalien begründet sein, um modale Grundbegriffe zu vermeiden. Aber ist nicht der Appell an Essenzen selber modal (und modale Magie)?
BigelowVsVs: ja und nein. Wir alle brauchen manchmal ein bisschen Magie. Aber dies ist weiße Magie. Man streitet sich nur manchmal darüber, was weiß und was schwarz ist.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Forrest, P. Bigelow Vs Forrest, P. I 89
Structural universals/Peter Forrest/Bigelow/Pargetter: (similar to our relations of a higher level): Forrest thesis: there is a quasi-mereological n-ary operation taking n quasi-parts and composing them to a quasi-whole:
Operation = an + 1.
Bigelow/Pargetter: this is equivalent to the fact that there is an (n + 1)-ary relation here:
R(a1, ... an, an + 1).
BigelowVsForrest: our differences are that we do not accept quasi-mereology.
I 211
Def incompatibility/Forrest/Bigelow/Pargetter: instead of inconsistency (between propositions or truth-bearers), incompatibility between universals. BigelowVsForrest: That’s not nice, but it’s better than other approaches.
I 212
Correspondence theory/modal logic/Forrest/Bigelow/Pargetter: after all, Forrest gives us a correspondence theory of modal statements.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990