Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 13 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Autonomy Durkheim Habermas IV 129
Autonomy/Person/Durkheim/Habermas: The gift of free decision is sufficient to justify the personality of the individual. (1) However, this autonomy is not limited to the ability to make arbitrary decisions. It does not consist in the freedom to "choose between two alternatives", but rather in a "reflected self-relationship".
Habermas IV 130
Progressive autonomy creates a new form of solidarity that is no longer secured by a prior consensus of values, but must be achieved cooperatively through individual efforts. Social integration through belief is replaced by cooperation. In the second edition, Durkheim revises his original view that this solidarity was an effect of the division of labour in society. Instead, he feels compelled to postulate a professional group morality.
Habermas IV 131
HabermasVsDurkheim: by postulating something superior as a binding force, he does not escape the pitfalls of historical-philosophical thinking. On the one hand he adopts the descriptive attitude of a social scientist, on the other hand he adopts the concept of universalist morality (...) in a normative attitude and succinctly declares it his duty "to form a new morality for us". (2)
HabermasVsDurkheim: he is not aware of the methodological conditions that the descriptive recording of a development process, understood as a rationalization process, must satisfy.


1. E. Durkheim, De la division du travail social, German: Über die Teilung der sozialen Arbeit, Frankfurt, 1977, S. 444
2. Ebenda S. 450.

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Community Habermas Habermas IV 211
Community/social community/Talcott Parsons/Habermas: in the tradition dating back to Durkheim, social theory is based on a concept of the lifeworld shortened to the aspect of social integration. Parsons chooses the term "social community" for this; by this he means the lifeworld of a socially integrated group. It forms the core of every society, whereby "society" is understood as the structural component, which defines by legitimately orderly interpersonal
Habermas IV 212
relationships the status, i.e. the rights and duties of group members, culture and personality are merely presented as functional supplements to the "social community": culture provides society with values that can be institutionalized; and the socialized individuals contribute motivations that are appropriate to the standardized expectations of behavior. (MeadVsDurkheim, HabermasVsDurkheim).

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Culture Parsons Habermas IV 211
Culture/Talcott/Parsons/Habermas: in Durkheim's tradition, social theory is based on a concept of the lifeworld shortened to the aspect of social integration.
Habermas IV 212
Culture and personality are merely presented as functional supplements to the "social community": culture provides society with values that can be institutionalized; and the socialized individuals contribute motivations that are appropriate to the standardized expectations of behavior. (MeadVsDurkheim, HabermasVsDurkheim). Against this:
Mead/Habermas: in the tradition based on Mead, social theory is based on a concept of the lifeworld that is shortened to the aspect of the socialization of individuals. Representatives of symbolic interactionism are: H. Blumer, A.M. Rose, A. Strauss or R. H. Turner.
Habermas IV 354
Culture/Parsons/Habermas: (See also Cultural Values/Parsons). In the later Parsons, culture is understood as a subsystem, that follows own
Habermas IV 355
imperatives of conservation, which itself manages with scarce resources and that other subsystems "penetrate" only in the sense that systems that form environments for one another overlap in peripheral zones and can interlink with one another. This methodological revision also means a break with what Parsons called "analytical realism".
Habermas IV 426
Culture/Evolution/Parsons/Habermas: Parsons regards cultural development as an equivalent for changes in the genetic code (>Analogies). Selection/Parsons: for Parsons, the social implementation of the potential included in world views corresponds to selection from the field of cultural variants.

ParCh I
Ch. Parsons
Philosophy of Mathematics in the Twentieth Century: Selected Essays Cambridge 2014

ParTa I
T. Parsons
The Structure of Social Action, Vol. 1 1967

ParTe I
Ter. Parsons
Indeterminate Identity: Metaphysics and Semantics 2000


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Division of Labour Durkheim Habermas IV 173
Division of Labour/Durkheim/Habermas: Durkheim uses the term division of labour in the sense of a structural differentiation of social systems. The functional differentiation of professional groups is also of exemplary importance for Durkheim. But he has a tendency to reduce the complexity of a society
Habermas IV 174
by demographic indicators. Social division of Labour/Durkheim: a) segmental, b) functionally differentiated societies. Analogy: e.g. biological organisms. From this, Durkheim derives a biological model for functionally differentiated societies, which he calls "organic". Different organs play special roles. Durkheim identifies the state as the central organ. (1)
Habermas IV 175
Taking the biological model as a basis, Durkheim does not have to adopt more norms than conditions for the formation of these structures. Luhmann calls this "norm-free sociality". (2) Society/Durkheim: Thesis: for archaic societies, collective consciousness is constitutive, for modern societies, however, it is the division of labour. (3)
Durkheim/Habermas: while primitive societies are integrated via a basic normative understanding, integration in developed societies takes place via the systemic context of functionally specified areas of action. See Division of labour/Spencer.
Habermas IV 178
Division of Labour/Durkheim: Durkheim's thesis: industrial capitalist societies are driving towards an anomie. Durkheim attributes this anomie to the same processes of differentiation from which a new moral "natural law" was to emerge. Durkheim's example of anomic division of labour is the "enmity between labour and capital" (4) HabermasVsDurkheim: his analyses are circular: on the one hand, he claims that the moral rules that make organic solidarity possible "flow out of the division of labor by themselves in the normal state". (5) On the other hand, he explains the dysfunctional nature of certain forms of division of labour with the lack of such normative regulations. (6)
Habermas IV 179
Solution/Habermas: we have to distinguish between the system (from the observer's perspective) and the life world (from the social group's perspective). At the same time, we should conceive of societies as a system and a living environment.

1.E. Durkheim, De la division du travail social, Paris 1930, German Frankfurt 1977, p. 222f.
2.N. Luhmann, Einleitung zu Durkheim (1977).
3. Durkheim (1977) p. 266
4. Ibid p. 396
5. Ibid p. 408
6. Ibid p. 410

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Holiness Durkheim Habermas IV 78
Holy/Holiness/Durkheim/Habermas: Def Holy/Durkheim: the sacred (...) is the separate, isolated. Every contact with others results in its profanation.
Habermas IV 79
The sacred and the profane are not on the same level. They are heterogeneous and incommensurable. (1) The holy awakens the same ambivalent attitude as moral authority, for the holy is surrounded by an aura that at the same time frightens and attracts, terrorizes and enchants. (2)
Habermas IV 80
HabermasVsDurkheim: where Durkheim tries to make the origin of the sacred clear, its connection to the tradition of philosophy of consciousness becomes apparent: Durkheim's thesis: Religions should consist of beliefs and ritual practices. For Durkheim, religion is thus an expression of a collective, supra-individual consciousness. Since consciousness needs an intentional object, Durkheim is looking for...
Habermas IV 81
the object of the religious world of imagination. For religion itself, of course, this is the divine being - for Durkheim, however, "the transfigured and symbolically conceived society" hides behind it. Society is the collective to which the group members associate themselves; in short, "the collective person" is created in such a way that it reaches beyond the consciousness of the individual persons and yet at the same time is immanent. It also has all the characteristics of an awe-inspiring moral authority. (3) HabermasVsDurkheim: this is circular: the moral is attributed to the holy, this to collective ideas of an entity, which in turn should consist of a system of compulsory norms.

1. E. Durkheim, Sociologie et philosophie, Paris 1951, German Frankfurt 1967, p. 126f.
2. Ibid p. 86.
3. Ibidp. 104

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Individuals Durkheim Habermas IV 91
Individual/Durkheim/Habermas: Durkheim thesis: The individual breaks down into two parts: a) a non-socialized part subject to self-interest and self-preservation imperatives and b) a moral part shaped by the group identity. (1) The division of the social universe into areas of the profane and the sacred is repeated psychologically in the contrast of body and soul or body and mind, in the antagonism of inclination and duty, sensuality and reason.
HabermasVsDurkheim: here it becomes clearer than anywhere else how strongly Durkheim remains attached to the traditional philosophy of consciousness. He distinguishes between states of individual and collective consciousness, but both are considered states of consciousness of the individual. (2)
Individual/Durkheim: owes its identity as a person exclusively to
Habermas VI 92
the identification with or internalisation of characteristics of collective identity; personal identity is a reflection of collective identity. Durkheim: "So it is not true if we believe that the more individualistic we are, the more personal we are." (3)
Habermas IV 93
MeadVsDurkheim: unlike Durkheim, Mead assumes that identity formation takes place via the medium of language communication. And since the subjectivity of one's own intentions escapes by no means from the desires and feelings, the instances of I and superego (in Mead "I" and "Me") must emerge from the same process of socialization. (See Identity/Mead, I/Self/Mead, Individuation/Mead).

1. E. Durkheim, Les formes élementaires de la vie religieuse, Paris, 1968, German: Frankfurt 1981, p. 37.
2. E. Durkheim, Le dualisme de la nature humaine et ses conditions sociales, in: ders.La science sociale et l’action, (Ed) J. C. Filloux, Paris 1970, p. 330.
3. Durkheim (1981). p. 369.

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Individuation Mead Habermas IV 93
Individuation/MeadVsDurkheim/Mead/Habermas: Mead thesis: the process of socialization is also a process of individuation. Mead justifies this with the diversity of position-bound perspectives that speakers and listeners take up. As a principle of individuation, Mead does not cite the body, but a perspective structure that is set with the communicative roles of the first, second and third person. "Me" stands for the view that ego offers an alter in an interaction when this ego makes a speech act offer. This view gains ego from himself in that he himself takes over alters perspective in speech acts.
Habermas IV 94
N.B.: the actor is forced by the mere structure of linguistic intersubjectivity to be himself also in norm-compliant behavior. In communicative action, however it is guided by norms, nobody can be relieved of initiative in a very fundamental sense, nobody can hand over the initiative: "The "I" provides the feeling of freedom, the initiative". (1)

1. G. H. Mead, Mind, Self and Society, ed. Ch. W. Morris, Chicago 1934, German Geist, Identität und Gesellschaft, Frankfurt, 1969, S. 221.

Mead I
George Herbert Mead
Mind, Self, and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist (Works of George Herbert Mead, Vol. 1), Chicago 1967
German Edition:
Geist, Identität und Gesellschaft aus der Sicht des Sozialbehaviorismus Frankfurt 1973


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Institutions Habermas IV 90
Institutions/development/HabermasVsDurkheim: in order to explain the emergence of institutions from religious rites, as Durkheim wants, we must accept linguistically shaped worldviews as an intermediary between the non-linguistic rites and the communicative action of institutions. We must take into account that everyday profane practice runs through linguistically differentiated processes of communication and requires the specification of validity claims for actions appropriate to the situation in the normative context of roles and institutions. (1)


1.Talcott ParsonsVsDurkheim setzt an dieser Stelle ein; T. Parsons, (1967b).

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Institutions Durkheim Habermas IV 89
Institutions/Durkheim/Habermas: Durkheim thesis: all great institutions have arisen from the spirit of religion. HabermasVsDurkheim: we can only accept this in an indirect way: the more institutions differentiate, the looser the connection to ritual practice becomes. The religious origin of institutions becomes non-trivial only when we consider religious world interpretation as a link between collective identity on the one hand and institutions on the other. See Institutions/Habermas.

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Religion Durkheim Habermas IV 80
Religion/Durkheim/HabermasVsDurkheim/Habermas: where Durkheim tries to make the origin of the sacred clear, his connection to the tradition of the philosophy of consciousness becomes apparent: Durkheim's thesis: Religions should consist of religious beliefs and ritual practices. For Durkheim, religion is thus an expression of a collective, supra-individual consciousness. Since consciousness needs an intentional object, Durkheim is looking for
Habermas IV 81
the object of religious imagination. For religion itself, of course, this is the divine being - for Durkheim, however, "the transfigured and symbolically conceived society" hides behind it. Society is the collective to which the group members associate themselves; in short, "the collective person" is created in such a way that it reaches beyond the consciousness of the individual persons and yet is at the same time immanent. It also has all the characteristics of an awe-inspiring moral authority. (1)
HabermasVsDurkheim: this is circular: the moral is attributed to the holy, this to collective ideas of an entity, which in turn should consist of a system of compulsory norms.


1. E. Durkheim, Sociologie et philosophie, Paris 1951, German Frankfurt 1967, p.104

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Religious Belief Durkheim Habermas IV 73
Religious Belief/Durkheim/Habermas: Durkheim does not analyze religious belief and patriotism like G. GH. Mead, as out-of-the-ordinary attitudes of modern contemporaries, but as an expression of a collective consciousness deeply rooted in phylogenetic history, which is constitutive for the identity of groups.
Habermas IV 74
HabermasVsDurkheim: Durkheim does not sufficiently distinguish between the commonality of ritual practice created by religious symbolism and a linguistically generated inter-subjectivity.
Habermas IV 83
Religious Belief/Durkheim/Habermas: Religious belief is always belief of a collective. It emerges from a practice that he interprets at the same time. Religious beliefs are already formulated linguistically, they are the common possession of a religious community, whose members assure themselves of their commonness in ritual actions. (1)
Habermas IV 84
Durkheim/Habermas: religion is no longer presented in a positivist manner, in the manner of a theory that (...) represents society as a whole. Instead, there is now a dynamic view. Once ritual practice is recognized as the more original phenomenon, religious symbolism can be understood as a means for a special form of symbolically mediated interaction. This, the ritual practice, serves a communicative communion.

1. E. Durkheim, Les formes élementaires de la vie religieuse, Paris, 1968, German: Frankfurt 1981 p. 28.

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Sociology Durkheim Habermas IV 9
Sociology/Durkheim/Habermas: Émile Durkheim (1858-1917) is one of the founding fathers of modern sociology together with Max Weber and George Herbert Mead. Like Mead, he proceeds from Weber's concept of rationalization. In the end, Durkheim creates a theory of social solidarity that also includes social and system integration which are related to each other.
Habermas IV 304
Sociology/Durkheim/Habermas: Durkheim starts from "collective representations" - HabermasVsDurkheim: I propose communicative action as a basic concept. Then society can first be conceived as the lifeworld of members of a social group. (Systems theoryVs).

Durkheim I
E. Durkheim
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
German Edition:
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984


Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Ha III
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Ha IV
Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981
Sociology Pareto Brocker I 97
Sociology/Pareto: Leading French sociology in the Romanic-speaking world since Auguste Comte at the beginning of the 20th century
Brocker I 98
(Gabriel Tarde, Émile Durkheim, Ernest Renan) was too literary and essayistic for Pareto, but above all too moralizing to live up to his expectations trained in science. (ParetoVsDurkheim, ParetoVsRenan, ParetoVsTarde). His research program included the study of human actions and the corresponding emotional states in order to recognize the social forms. (1)
Brocker I 99
From his economical scientific works, which were influenced by the categories of theoretical mechanics and physicalism, Pareto adopted the terms "system" and "equilibrium" and transferred them to sociology as "social system" and "social equilibrium". Pareto's central sociological object of knowledge is society. The system concept emphasizes the interdependencies between the elements, while the equilibrium concept refers to the movements and forces of the respective social system (cf. Bach 2004, 63 ff.) (2).
Brocker I 100
Pareto compared the actions of the social actors with the molecules in the mechanics of the solid and liquid bodies. At the same time, however, he assumed that the socially relevant actions were predominantly not rational. See Actions/Pareto. Pareto drew the limits of his field of research where the assessment of the purposes of action depends on value assumptions about which no scientifically sound statements are possible according to the logical-experimental method.


1. Vilfredo Pareto, Trattato di sociologia generale, Florenz 1916. Vilfredo Pareto, Trattato di sociologia generale. Edizione critica a cura di Giovanni Busino, 4 Bände, Turin 1988. Dt.: Vilfredo Paretos System der allgemeinen Soziologie, herausgegeben und übersetzt von Gottfried Eisermann, Stuttgart 1962, § 145.
2. Maurizio Bach, Jenseits des rationalen Handelns. Zur Soziologie Vilfredo Paretos, Wiesbaden 2004.


Maurizio Bach, Vilfredo Pareto, Allgemeine Soziologie (1916) in: Manfred Brocker (Hg). Geschichte des Politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M. 2018.


Brocker I
Manfred Brocker
Geschichte des politischen Denkens. Das 20. Jahrhundert Frankfurt/M. 2018

The author or concept searched is found in the following controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Various Authors Dewey Vs Various Authors Suhr I 57
DeweyVsAbility: there is no "ability in itself", but only in connection with a task! Thinking is trial treatment.
I 95
DeweyVsDualismus: experience does not come from nature but is in nature.
Hacking I 109
Dewey/Hacking: it has the (false) appearance that for Dewey everything is a social construct. DeweyVsDualism, all dualisms. Theory/Practice, Mind/Matter, Thinking/Action, Fact/Value. Vs "Spectator Theory of Knowledge".
Putnam III 237
Durkheim: had come to the conclusion that political opinions should be based on the "opinion of experts".
III 238
DeweyVsDurkheim: perhaps did not even know this treatise, yet Vs: "It cannot fail to happen that an expert class moves so far away from the interests of the community that it becomes a class with private interests and private knowledge. And private knowledge is not knowledge at all in relation to social affairs."
Rorty VI 88
Truth/Goal/DeweyVsSpencer: there is no goal of a truth to be achieved (this goal is also represented today by Peirce and by Bernard Williams).

Dew II
J. Dewey
Essays in Experimental Logic Minneola 2004

Suhr I
Martin Suhr
John Dewey zur Einführung Hamburg 1994

Hacking I
I. Hacking
Representing and Intervening. Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge/New York/Oakleigh 1983
German Edition:
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996

Putnam I
Hilary Putnam
Von einem Realistischen Standpunkt
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Frankfurt 1993

Putnam I (a)
Hilary Putnam
Explanation and Reference, In: Glenn Pearce & Patrick Maynard (eds.), Conceptual Change. D. Reidel. pp. 196--214 (1973)
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (b)
Hilary Putnam
Language and Reality, in: Mind, Language and Reality: Philosophical Papers, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 272-90 (1995
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (c)
Hilary Putnam
What is Realism? in: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 76 (1975):pp. 177 - 194.
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (d)
Hilary Putnam
Models and Reality, Journal of Symbolic Logic 45 (3), 1980:pp. 464-482.
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (e)
Hilary Putnam
Reference and Truth
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (f)
Hilary Putnam
How to Be an Internal Realist and a Transcendental Idealist (at the Same Time) in: R. Haller/W. Grassl (eds): Sprache, Logik und Philosophie, Akten des 4. Internationalen Wittgenstein-Symposiums, 1979
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (g)
Hilary Putnam
Why there isn’t a ready-made world, Synthese 51 (2):205--228 (1982)
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (h)
Hilary Putnam
Pourqui les Philosophes? in: A: Jacob (ed.) L’Encyclopédie PHilosophieque Universelle, Paris 1986
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (i)
Hilary Putnam
Realism with a Human Face, Cambridge/MA 1990
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam I (k)
Hilary Putnam
"Irrealism and Deconstruction", 6. Giford Lecture, St. Andrews 1990, in: H. Putnam, Renewing Philosophy (The Gifford Lectures), Cambridge/MA 1992, pp. 108-133
In
Von einem realistischen Standpunkt, Vincent C. Müller Reinbek 1993

Putnam II
Hilary Putnam
Representation and Reality, Cambridge/MA 1988
German Edition:
Repräsentation und Realität Frankfurt 1999

Putnam III
Hilary Putnam
Renewing Philosophy (The Gifford Lectures), Cambridge/MA 1992
German Edition:
Für eine Erneuerung der Philosophie Stuttgart 1997

Putnam IV
Hilary Putnam
"Minds and Machines", in: Sidney Hook (ed.) Dimensions of Mind, New York 1960, pp. 138-164
In
Künstliche Intelligenz, Walther Ch. Zimmerli/Stefan Wolf Stuttgart 1994

Putnam V
Hilary Putnam
Reason, Truth and History, Cambridge/MA 1981
German Edition:
Vernunft, Wahrheit und Geschichte Frankfurt 1990

Putnam VI
Hilary Putnam
"Realism and Reason", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association (1976) pp. 483-98
In
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994

Putnam VII
Hilary Putnam
"A Defense of Internal Realism" in: James Conant (ed.)Realism with a Human Face, Cambridge/MA 1990 pp. 30-43
In
Theories of Truth, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994

SocPut I
Robert D. Putnam
Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community New York 2000

Rorty I
Richard Rorty
Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Princeton/NJ 1979
German Edition:
Der Spiegel der Natur Frankfurt 1997

Rorty II
Richard Rorty
Philosophie & die Zukunft Frankfurt 2000

Rorty II (b)
Richard Rorty
"Habermas, Derrida and the Functions of Philosophy", in: R. Rorty, Truth and Progress. Philosophical Papers III, Cambridge/MA 1998
In
Philosophie & die Zukunft, Frankfurt/M. 2000

Rorty II (c)
Richard Rorty
Analytic and Conversational Philosophy Conference fee "Philosophy and the other hgumanities", Stanford Humanities Center 1998
In
Philosophie & die Zukunft, Frankfurt/M. 2000

Rorty II (d)
Richard Rorty
Justice as a Larger Loyalty, in: Ronald Bontekoe/Marietta Stepanians (eds.) Justice and Democracy. Cross-cultural Perspectives, University of Hawaii 1997
In
Philosophie & die Zukunft, Frankfurt/M. 2000

Rorty II (e)
Richard Rorty
Spinoza, Pragmatismus und die Liebe zur Weisheit, Revised Spinoza Lecture April 1997, University of Amsterdam
In
Philosophie & die Zukunft, Frankfurt/M. 2000

Rorty II (f)
Richard Rorty
"Sein, das verstanden werden kann, ist Sprache", keynote lecture for Gadamer’ s 100th birthday, University of Heidelberg
In
Philosophie & die Zukunft, Frankfurt/M. 2000

Rorty II (g)
Richard Rorty
"Wild Orchids and Trotzky", in: Wild Orchids and Trotzky: Messages form American Universities ed. Mark Edmundson, New York 1993
In
Philosophie & die Zukunft, Frankfurt/M. 2000

Rorty III
Richard Rorty
Contingency, Irony, and solidarity, Chambridge/MA 1989
German Edition:
Kontingenz, Ironie und Solidarität Frankfurt 1992

Rorty IV (a)
Richard Rorty
"is Philosophy a Natural Kind?", in: R. Rorty, Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth. Philosophical Papers Vol. I, Cambridge/Ma 1991, pp. 46-62
In
Eine Kultur ohne Zentrum, Stuttgart 1993

Rorty IV (b)
Richard Rorty
"Non-Reductive Physicalism" in: R. Rorty, Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth. Philosophical Papers Vol. I, Cambridge/Ma 1991, pp. 113-125
In
Eine Kultur ohne Zentrum, Stuttgart 1993

Rorty IV (c)
Richard Rorty
"Heidegger, Kundera and Dickens" in: R. Rorty, Essays on Heidegger and Others. Philosophical Papers Vol. 2, Cambridge/MA 1991, pp. 66-82
In
Eine Kultur ohne Zentrum, Stuttgart 1993

Rorty IV (d)
Richard Rorty
"Deconstruction and Circumvention" in: R. Rorty, Essays on Heidegger and Others. Philosophical Papers Vol. 2, Cambridge/MA 1991, pp. 85-106
In
Eine Kultur ohne Zentrum, Stuttgart 1993

Rorty V (a)
R. Rorty
"Solidarity of Objectivity", Howison Lecture, University of California, Berkeley, January 1983
In
Solidarität oder Objektivität?, Stuttgart 1998

Rorty V (b)
Richard Rorty
"Freud and Moral Reflection", Edith Weigert Lecture, Forum on Psychiatry and the Humanities, Washington School of Psychiatry, Oct. 19th 1984
In
Solidarität oder Objektivität?, Stuttgart 1988

Rorty V (c)
Richard Rorty
The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy, in: John P. Reeder & Gene Outka (eds.), Prospects for a Common Morality. Princeton University Press. pp. 254-278 (1992)
In
Solidarität oder Objektivität?, Stuttgart 1988

Rorty VI
Richard Rorty
Truth and Progress, Cambridge/MA 1998
German Edition:
Wahrheit und Fortschritt Frankfurt 2000