Lexicon of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 5 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Darwinism Popper
 
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Mayr I 87
PopperVsDarwinismus: (1974): "keine überprüfbare Theorie, sondern ein metaphysisches Forschungsprogramm...." später von ihm widerrufen.

Po I
K. Popper
Objektive Erkenntnis Hamburg 1993


Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998
Darwinism Nietzsche
 
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Pfotenhauer I 5
Darwinism/Evolution/Nietzsche/NietzscheVsDarwinism/Pfotenhauer: Darwin's theory of evolution, which makes selection into a principle according to the measure (...) of selection performances to external conditions, is not liked by Nietzsche; he even hates it: "[...]this is the moral.... the middle ones are worth more than the exceptions"..."I am appalled by the formulation [of this] moral." Added Fragments, Spring 1888, KGW VIII, p. 95ff). ---
Danto III 197
Darwinism/NietzscheVsDarwinism/Nietzsche/DantoVsNietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche falls too often into the stupidest misconceptions of Darwinism by equating survival with excellence. He overlooks what Th. H. Huxley has already noticed: Evolution/Darwinism/Huxley, T. H.: the slightest change in the chemical composition of our atmosphere is enough to ensure that perhaps only a few lichens survive and thus become the masters of the world.
---
Danto III 268
Darwinism/NietzscheVsDarwinism/Nietzsche/Danto: Nietzsche was convinced VsDarwin that the disabled survive and the abled ones perish. Danto: apart from this tenacious belief, which is as easily attacked by Huxley's famous refutation as its flip side (See Darwinism/Huxley, Th. H.), it is difficult to see why Nietzsche wanted people to see him as an anti-Darwinist.
---
Danto III 269
Survival/Nietzsche: According to Nietzsche, whether you preserve yourself or not has nothing to do with the blind exercise of the will to power, which characterizes every thing at every moment. Something survives, insofar as it emerges victoriously from the struggle of the will; but it does not fight to survive - if so, it would be exactly the other way round: above all, something alive wants to omit its power - life itself is the will to power: self-preservation is only one of the indirect and most frequent consequences of it. (F. Nietzsche: Jenseits von Gut und Böse, KGW VI. 2, p. 21).

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014

Darwinism Huxley
 
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Danto III 197
Darwinism/NietzscheVsDarwinism/Nietzsche/DantoVsNietzsche/Danto: All too often Nietzsche falls into the stupidest misconceptions of Darwinism by equating survival with excellence. He overlooks what Th. H. Huxley has already noticed: Evolution/Darwinism/Huxley, Th. H.: the slightest change in the chemical composition of our atmosphere is enough to ensure that perhaps only a few lichens survive and thus become the masters of the world.

HuxA I
A. Huxley
Science, Liberty and Peace London 1946


Dt I
A. C. Danto
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Dt III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Dt VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Evolution Vollmer
 
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Evolutionary Epistemology/Vollmer: in the evolution of science, there are no "mutations" because there is no "offspring" in scientific theories - Evolutionary epistemology is only useful insofar as subjective knowledge structures are inherited.
---
I 51
The evolutionary epistemology does not have the concept of truth of pragmatism - it is not proven by success. ---
I 75
Success/Vollmer: only proves that the hypothesis was not entirely wrong. ---
I 217
VsEvolution theory/VsDarwinismus. Circular. VollmerVsVs: it is wrong that "Fitness" can be defined without recourse to "surviving". ---
I 260
Fitness is not determined by the survival of the individual, but by reproductive success, more food, more habitat, more partners, more offspring, etc. ---
I 264
Entropy/Evolution/life/Vollmer: contrary to popular belief it is not always a measure of disorder - under special conditions (low total energy and existence of lasting interactions or inclusion by external forces > Weizsäcker) the increase in entropy even includes an increase of order and structure - thus the second law does not contradict the origin of living things. ---
I 279
Adaptation/selection/VsEvolutionary Epistemology is no falsification - the original eye is not falsyfied by the eye of the eagle - proper mapping does not matter - transferring the selection theory on cognitive skills can only succeed if there is objective truth and if knowledge is more useful than error (Simmel, 1895) - VollmerVsVs: this is not an argument VsEvolution - no matter who is adapting to whom - Co-adaption. ---
I 298
Evolution/success/Vollmer: the accuracy of knowledge cannot be inferred from evolutionary success - otherwise naturalistic fallacy - confusion of facts with norms. ---
II 190
Evolution/time direction/Vollmer: due to cosmic expansion there are no two moments of evolution identical - (> Time Arrow).

Vo I
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd I Stuttgart 1988

Vo II
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd II Stuttgart 1988

Functional Explanation Bigelow
 
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I 323
Definition Functional Explanation/Function/Bigelow/Pargetter: with a functional explanation we describe existing patterns by reference to future events or states. It is possible that these may never occur. Why: we explain, e.g. why we have teeth by pointing out their function.
Problem: to explain the function of causally inactive patterns or elements.
---
I 324
Problem: because the future conditions may not even arise, we do not describe any real properties. Properties/Bigelow/Pargetter: properties of a system are derived from its causal history, not from its function! Therefore, they do not depend on the function of the system!
Backwards causation/Bigelow/Pargetter: is simply excluded with this.
Function/Explanation/Bigelow/Pargetter: therefore, the function of a system is correspondingly redundant. The function can of course be mentioned, but description is more than mentioning possible effects.
Functional Explanation/Science/Bigelow/Pargetter: there are three approaches that we consider to be generally correct. They all have in common that functions have no significant explanatory power.
---
I 325
E.g. Evolution/Bigelow/Pargetter: the theories of functional explanation do not allow to explain evolution by saying that a pattern has formed because it fulfils a certain function. Functional Explanation/Bigelow/Pargetter: Thesis: our theory will be a realistic one.
---
I 332
Functional Explanation/function/Bigelow/Pargetter: thesis: we want a theory that is forward oriented. Functions can and should be explained by reference to future events and states. Analogous to the explanation of dispositions.
Analog: our explanation has an analog: the explanation of the evolution-theoretical concept of survival (fitness). (Lit. Pargetter 1987).
VsDarwinism/VsDarwin/Bigelow/Pargetter: frequent objection: the "survival of the able" is an empty tautology.
BigelowVsVs: the objection is based on the assumption that fitness could only be determined retrospectively. He also assumes that the fact that some individuals survive is exactly what constitutes efficiency. (circular).
BigelowVsAetiologic theory: is based on the same misunderstanding. It then claims that also the property of having a function is a retrospective property constituted by the history of survival. Thus, the concept of function is deprived of its explanatory potential.
---
I 333
Circularity/Bigelow/Pargetter: this objection is often erroneously raised VsDarwinism. Fitness/solution/Bigelow/Pargetter: however, it is not defined retrospectively, but is analogous to a disposition.
Subjunction/subjunctive/conditional/fitness/Bigelow/Pargetter: Fitness is a subjunctive property: it determines what would happen if these or that circumstances were to occur. This subjunctive property supervenes on the morphological character of the individual or species. There is no circularity.
Biological function/Bigelow/Pargetter: the same applies to them as to fitness. They are two sides of the same coin.
Fitness/Bigelow/Pargetter: means looking forward.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990


The author or concept searched is found in the following 3 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Darwin, Ch. Popper Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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Mayr V 87
PopperVsDarwinism: (1974): "no verifiable theory, but a metaphysical research program ...." this criticism was later revoked by him.

Po I
K. Popper
Objektive Erkenntnis Hamburg 1993

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998
Darwin, Ch. Verschiedene Vs Darwin, Ch. Gould II 101
CuvierVsEvolution: he concluded from his principle of interaction that evolution had to be excluded.
II 136
VavilovVsDarwin: variation does not take place in all directions, but arranged in classes of chemistry and crystallography, which are analogous. Vavilov has underemphasized the creative role of the environment.
II 328
The opponents of Darwin always bring the same litany: Darwin must have been wrong - the order can not arise by chance (e.g. KoestlerVsDarwin).
Pinker I 403
Mortimer AdlerVsDarwinismus: (Philosoph) 1940: Evolution könne nicht stattgefunden haben, weil es auch kein dreieinhalbseitiges Dreieck gäbe. Darwin: es ist sehr wohl möglich, dass in der Vergangenheit Zwischenformen aufgetreten sind.
natürliche Art/Darwin: ist kein Idealtyp, sondern eine Population.

Vollmer I 260
Selektion/Vollmer: es gibt kein ernsthaftes Argument, wonach das Selektionsprinzip zirkulär sei. VsDarwinismus/Tautologie: Das Argument gegen den Darwinismus, er sei tautologisch, ist verfehlt: "Survival of the survivor": VollmerVsVs: Fitness wird nicht nach dem Überleben des Individuums bestimmt, sondern durch Fortpflanzungserfolg, mehr Nahrung, mehr Wohnraum, mehr Partner, mehr Nachkommen usw.





Pi I
St. Pinker
Wie das Denken im Kopf entsteht München 1998

Vo I
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd I Stuttgart 1988

Vo II
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd II Stuttgart 1988
Darwin, Ch. Bigelow Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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I 332
VsDarwinism/VsDarwin/Bigelow/Pargetter: common objection: the "survival of the fittest" is an empty tautology. BigelowVsVs: the objection assumes that fitness could only be determined retrospectively. It also assumes that the fact that some individuals survive is precisely what constitutes the fitness. (circular). BigelowVsAetiological theory: based on the same misunderstanding. It then claims that even the property of having a function is a retrospective property that is constituted by the story of survival. Thus the concept of function is robbed of its explanatory potential. I 333 Circularity/Bigelow/Pargetter: This objection is often raised falsely VsDarwinism. Fitness/Solution/Bigelow/Pargetter: but not retrospectively defined, but it is analogous to a disposition.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990