Lexicon of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]


 

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The author or concept searched is found in the following 10 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Coincidence Darwin
 
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Gould II 329
According to Darwin, chance could not provide the order that is so obvious in our world. The groups of individuals must first develop a large number of inheritable variations to provide the raw material for later influences. The opponents of Darwin always bring the same litany: Darwin must be wrong: the order cannot arise from chance. (E.g., KoestlerVsDarwin)
But that is precisely what Darwin never claimed. Chance only produces the raw material.

Gould: the newer evolutionary theory moves away from the strict Darwinism that has prevailed over the last 30 years.
Chance is perhaps not only at work in the generation of the variations: it could also be an equally important part of the evolutionary change.

II 330
Chance has a bad reputation, which is due to the role Darwin assigned to it in the production of the raw material. Chance is a candidate as bearer of evolutionary change, but does not threaten natural selection in the area of ​​adaptation.

Darwinism Popper
 
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Mayr I 87
PopperVsDarwinismus: (1974): "keine überprüfbare Theorie, sondern ein metaphysisches Forschungsprogramm...." später von ihm widerrufen.

Po I
K. Popper
Objektive Erkenntnis Hamburg 1993


Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998
Darwinism Kauffman
 
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I 27
Evolution/KauffmanVsDarwin: nach seiner Theorie vollzieht sich die Evolution allein durch die schrittweise Ansammlung vorteilhafter Varianten. KauffmanVs: danach hätten die ersten Vielzeller sich auseinanderentwickelt! Das war offenbar nicht der Fall: eins der rätselhaftesten Merkmale der kambrischen Explosion ist, dass das taxonomische System gleichsam von oben nach unten aufgefüllt wurde.


Kau I
St. Kauffman
Der Öltropfen im Wasser München 1998

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity

Darwinism Nietzsche
 
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Pfotenhauer I 5
Darwinismus/Evolution/Nietzsche/NietzscheVsDarwinismus/Pfotenhauer: Darwins Evolutionstheorie die die Selektion nach Maßgabe (…) von Selektionsleistungen an externe Bedingungen zum Prinzip macht, ist Nietzsche zuwider, ja verhasst: „[…]so lautet Diese Moral…die Mittleren sind mehr wert als die Ausnahmen“ ..“Gegen die Formulierung [dieser] Moral empöre ich mich […].“ Nachgel. Fragm, Frühjahr 1888., KGW VIII, S. S 95ff).
Danto III 197
Darwinismus/NietzscheVsDarwinismus/Nietzsche/DantoVsNietzsche/Danto: Allzu oft verfällt Nietzsche in den dümmsten Fehlglauben des Darwinismus, indem er das Überleben mit Vortrefflichkeit gleichsetzt. Dabei übersieht er, was Th. H. Huxley schon feststellte: Evolution/Darwinismus/Huxley, T. H. .: die kleinste Veränderung in der chemischen Zusammensetzung unserer Atmosphäre genügt, damit womöglich nur ein paar Flechten überleben und so zu den Herren der Welt werden.


Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014

Darwinism Huxley
 
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Danto III 197
Darwinismus/NietzscheVsDarwinismus/Nietzsche/DantoVsNietzsche/Danto: Allzu oft verfällt Nietzsche in den dümmsten Fehlglauben des Darwinismus, indem er das Überleben mit Vortrefflichkeit gleichsetzt. Dabei übersieht er, was Th. H. Huxley schon feststellte: Evolution/Darwinismus/Huxley, T. H.: die kleinste Veränderung in der chemischen Zusammensetzung unserer Atmosphäre genügt, damit womöglich nur ein paar Flechten überleben und so zu den Herren der Welt werden.

HuxA I
A. Huxley
Science, Liberty and Peace London 1946


Dt I
A. C. Danto
Wege zur Welt München 1999

Dt III
Arthur C. Danto
Nietzsche als Philosoph München 1998

Dt VII
A. C. Danto
The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) New York 2005
Evolution Vollmer
 
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Evolutionary Epistemology/Vollmer: in the evolution of science, there are no "mutations" because there is no "offspring" in scientific theories - Evolutionary epistemology is only useful insofar as subjective knowledge structures are inherited.
---
I 51
The evolutionary epistemology does not have the concept of truth of pragmatism - it is not proven by success. ---
I 75
Success/Vollmer: only proves that the hypothesis was not entirely wrong. ---
I 217
VsEvolution theory/VsDarwinismus. Circular. VollmerVsVs: it is wrong that "Fitness" can be defined without recourse to "surviving". ---
I 260
Fitness is not determined by the survival of the individual, but by reproductive success, more food, more habitat, more partners, more offspring, etc. ---
I 264
Entropy/Evolution/life/Vollmer: contrary to popular belief it is not always a measure of disorder - under special conditions (low total energy and existence of lasting interactions or inclusion by external forces > Weizsäcker) the increase in entropy even includes an increase of order and structure - thus the second law does not contradict the origin of living things. ---
I 279
Adaptation/selection/VsEvolutionary Epistemology is no falsification - the original eye is not falsyfied by the eye of the eagle - proper mapping does not matter - transferring the selection theory on cognitive skills can only succeed if there is objective truth and if knowledge is more useful than error (Simmel, 1895) - VollmerVsVs: this is not an argument VsEvolution - no matter who is adapting to whom - Co-adaption. ---
I 298
Evolution/success/Vollmer: the accuracy of knowledge cannot be inferred from evolutionary success - otherwise naturalistic fallacy - confusion of facts with norms. ---
II 190
Evolution/time direction/Vollmer: due to cosmic expansion there are no two moments of evolution identical - (> Time Arrow).

Vo I
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd I Stuttgart 1988

Vo II
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd II Stuttgart 1988

Explanation Kauffman
 
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Dennett I 309
KauffmanVsDarwin: eine Festlegung der frühen Entwicklung und damit die Baerschen Gesetze (alle Embryos von Lebewesen sehen sich anfangs sehr ähnlich) stellen keinen besonderen Mechanismus dar. Vielmehr spiegelt sich in der Festlegung der frühen Entwicklung die Tatsache wider, dass die Zahl der Wege, auf denen Lebewesen verbessert werden können, schneller geschrumpft ist als die Zahl der Wege in der späteren Entwicklung.
I 310
Bsp die Fundamente der Kirchen ähneln sich stärker als die oberen Stockwerke. Grund: Experimentieren mit Verzierungen wirkt sich nicht so verhängnisvoll aus, wenn sie oben durchgeführt werden, wo nicht alles zusammenbrechen kann. Eigentlich sind wirklich nicht so viele Lösungen zu Beginn möglich, wie später. Erklärung/Kauffman: um das zu erklären, müssen wir nicht nach Lenkungsmechanismen suchen. Es erklärt sich von selbst. Solche Wege findet die Evolution immer wieder.


Kau I
St. Kauffman
Der Öltropfen im Wasser München 1998

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity


Den I
D. Dennett
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
Functional Explanation Bigelow
 
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I 323
Definition Functional Explanation/Function/Bigelow/Pargetter: with a functional explanation we describe existing patterns by reference to future events or states. It is possible that these may never occur. Why: we explain, e.g. why we have teeth by pointing out their function.
Problem: to explain the function of causally inactive patterns or elements.
---
I 324
Problem: because the future conditions may not even arise, we do not describe any real properties. Properties/Bigelow/Pargetter: properties of a system are derived from its causal history, not from its function! Therefore, they do not depend on the function of the system!
Backwards causation/Bigelow/Pargetter: is simply excluded with this.
Function/Explanation/Bigelow/Pargetter: therefore, the function of a system is correspondingly redundant. The function can of course be mentioned, but description is more than mentioning possible effects.
Functional Explanation/Science/Bigelow/Pargetter: there are three approaches that we consider to be generally correct. They all have in common that functions have no significant explanatory power.
---
I 325
E.g. Evolution/Bigelow/Pargetter: the theories of functional explanation do not allow to explain evolution by saying that a pattern has formed because it fulfils a certain function. Functional Explanation/Bigelow/Pargetter: Thesis: our theory will be a realistic one.
---
I 332
Functional Explanation/function/Bigelow/Pargetter: thesis: we want a theory that is forward oriented. Functions can and should be explained by reference to future events and states. Analogous to the explanation of dispositions.
Analog: our explanation has an analog: the explanation of the evolution-theoretical concept of survival (fitness). (Lit. Pargetter 1987).
VsDarwinism/VsDarwin/Bigelow/Pargetter: frequent objection: the "survival of the able" is an empty tautology.
BigelowVsVs: the objection is based on the assumption that fitness could only be determined retrospectively. He also assumes that the fact that some individuals survive is exactly what constitutes efficiency. (circular).
BigelowVsAetiologic theory: is based on the same misunderstanding. It then claims that also the property of having a function is a retrospective property constituted by the history of survival. Thus, the concept of function is deprived of its explanatory potential.
---
I 333
Circularity/Bigelow/Pargetter: this objection is often erroneously raised VsDarwinism. Fitness/solution/Bigelow/Pargetter: however, it is not defined retrospectively, but is analogous to a disposition.
Subjunction/subjunctive/conditional/fitness/Bigelow/Pargetter: Fitness is a subjunctive property: it determines what would happen if these or that circumstances were to occur. This subjunctive property supervenes on the morphological character of the individual or species. There is no circularity.
Biological function/Bigelow/Pargetter: the same applies to them as to fitness. They are two sides of the same coin.
Fitness/Bigelow/Pargetter: means looking forward.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990

Selection Mayr
 
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I 65
Natural selection/Mayr: is no random process! (Although coincidence happens in evolution). ---
I 248
Selection/Mayr: is today completely accepted. Two steps: variation and actual selection. 1. Variation: In each generation, recombination, gene flow, random factors and mutations generate a great genetic diversity. The genetic material is "hard" and not "soft", as Darwin assumed.
Sexual Reproduction: the parental chromosomes are broken and reassembled. Thus uniqueness of the offspring by recombination. Composition of the genes according to no law!
---
I 249
2.Selection: differences in the survival and reproduction of newly formed individuals. Even in species producing millions of offspring in each generation, on average, only two of them are needed to maintain population balance. ---
I 250
Coincidence/Mayr: dominates the variation. Necessity/Mayr: dominates the selection.
Selection: there is no "selective force"!
---
I 252
Selection: Bates' discovery of mimicry (1862) in edible and poisonous butterflies: first proof of natural selection. Benefits/Biology: what is the benefit of the emergence of a characteristic for survival: adaptionist program.
---
I 252
Characteristics/Survival: favourable characteristics: Tolerance against adverse climate, better utilisation of food, resistance to pathogens, escape capability. (through sexual reproduction). Selection by females (peacock tail) may be more important than the ability of males to defeat rivals. ---
I 253
Brother and sister rivalry and parental care: affect reproductive success rather than survival. This selection is apparently more important than the concept of sexual selection suggests. ---
I 260
Extinction: 99.9% of all evolutionary lines that once existed on Earth are extinct. Selection: Darwin: "Natural selection is on an hourly basis all over the world to detect the slightest changes".
---
I 261
Selection/MayrVsDarwin: the genetic variation needed to perfect a characteristic may not occur at all! For example, the inner/outer skeleton: vertebrates up to the dinosaur, outer skeleton: the giant crab has remained the largest creature. The difference is determined by the different paths taken by the ancestors, not by the presence of characteristics!
---
I 262
Selection/Mayr: further restriction: interaction in development. The parts of the organism are not independent of each other. No one reacts to the selection without interacting with the other characteristics. Geoffroys, 1818: "Law of Balance": Organisms are compromises between competing demands.
Selection/Mayr: 3rd Restriction: Ability to non-genetic modification: the more plastic the phenotype (due to flexibility in development) is, the less the force of selection pressure. Plants (and especially microorganisms) have a much greater ability to phenotypic modification (more diverse reaction standard) than animals.
Ability for non-genetic adaptation is exclusively genetically controlled!
Coincidence: works at every level.
---
I 264
New: whole populations or even species could be the target of the selection. ---
I 265
Soft/hard group selection. Soft group selection: Success through the average selection value of the individuals. This means that each individual selection is also a soft group selection.
Hard group selection: the group as a whole has certain adaptive group characteristics that are not simply the sum of the contributions, the advantage of the group is greater than that of the sum of the individual members. Division of labor, cooperation (guardian, search for food). Here the term "group selection" is justified.
---
I 266
Origin of the species: this controversy completely changed the status of so-called species selection: the emergence of a new species seems to contribute very often to the extinction of another species. "Species Exchange," takes place according to strict Darwinian principles. ---
I 279
Definition r selection: strongly fluctuating, often catastrophically exposed population size, weak intraspecific competition, very fertile. K Selection: constant population size, strong competition, stable life expectancy.
---
I 280
As population density increases, so too does the influence of adverse factors: competition, food shortages, lack of escape routes, predators, > growth slows down. ---
I 317
Could the human being become a superhuman? The odds are not so good here! Not enough selection pressure. Group selection was particularly a thing of the past. Selection/Human: Today, however, in mass society there is no sign of selection for superior genotypes that would allow the human being to rise above its present abilities.
Many authors even claim that the human gene pool is decaying.
Francis Galton (Darwin's cousin) was the first to suggest that one could and should improve humanity with appropriate selection. He coined the term "eugenics".

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998

Species Mayr
 
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Gould I 216
Species/Darwin/Lamarck: Species are no natural units but "purely artificial combinations"... conceptual definitions. ---
I 217
Species/Ernst MayrVsDarwin/MayrVsLamarck: "Species are a product of evolution and not of the human mind." ---
I 179
Definition Species/Mayr: device for protecting balanced, harmonic genotypes. "Biological concept of species" seeks biological reasons for the existence of species. Maybe there are other properties by chance. Biological species concept:
1. Problem: Asexual organisms do not form populations.
2. Problem: Spatial expansion with subspecies. They can become independent species in isolation over time (by acquiring new isolation mechanisms). (polytypical species).
---
I 181
Nominalist concept of species: in nature exclusively individuals, species artificially created by humans (MayrVs: that would be arbitrariness, and nature shows that there is no arbitrariness.). ---
I 182
Evolutionary species concept: temporal dimension, generational series of populations. MayrVs: the concept does not take into account that there are two possible ways of species development: a) Gradual transformation of a stem line into another species without altering the number of species; and
b) The reproduction of species through geographical isolation.
---
I 183
Species/Mayr: is applied to three very different objects or phenomena: 1. The species concept
2. The category species
3. The species taxa
Some authors could not differentiate between them, leading to hopeless confusion in literature.
Species concept: biological meaning or definition of the word "species".
Category Species: certain rank in the Linnéian system. (Other categories: Order, Kingdom, Genus...)
Definition Species Taxa: special populations or population groups corresponding to the species definition. They are entities ("individuals") and cannot be defined as such. Individuals cannot be defined, but can only be described and delimited.
---
I 183
Evolution/Mayr: Species is the decisive entity of evolution. Species: a species, regardless of the individuals belonging to it, interacts as a unit with other species in the common environment.
---
I 185
Macrotaxonomy: the classification of species (in higher-level groups) Group: mostly easily recognizable: birds, butterflies, beetles.
Downward classification (actual identification). Division (aristotelian), heyday of medicinal botany.
E. g. warm-blooded or non-warm-blooded - having or not having feathers.
---
I 192
Organism types: most new types of organisms do not originate from the gradual transformation of a stem line, i. e. an existing type. Rather, a founder species penetrates into a new adaptive zone and is successful there thanks to rapid adaptive changes. For example, the more than 5000 species of songbirds are no more than the variation of a single theme. ---
I 192
Species: the two evolutionary ways to produce a new species: a) gradual change of the phenotype and b) increasing diversity (speciation) are only loosely related. ---
I 192
Selection pressure: may not apply if a founder species enters its very favourable adaptive zone. ---
I 283
Species/Mayr: very conservative estimate of 10 million animal species, of which are ca. 1.5 million described. So about 15% known. Legitimate estimate: 30 million species. Only 5% are known. On the other hand, 99% of all bird species are discovered and described. In many insects, arachnids, low vertebrates probably less than 10%. The same applies to mushrooms, protists and prokaryotes.

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998


The author or concept searched is found in the following 11 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Darwin, Ch. Gould Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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IV 110
GouldVsDarwin: was so convinced of the need for unlimited time as a condition of evolution, that he mistook the selection with the gradualism.   This led to criticism HuxleyVsDarwin: exaggerated assumption: "nature does not make leaps."
Dennett I 363-367
GouldVsOrthodox Darwinism: supposedly disproved by his "punctuated equilibrium".

Den I
D. Dennett
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
Darwin, Ch. Kauffman Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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Dennett I 309
KauffmanVsDarwin: a definition of the early development and thus of Baer s laws do not represent a specific mechanism   Rather the definition of early development reflects the fact that the number of ways in which living things can be improved, shrunk faster than the number of paths in the later development.
KauffmanVsDarwin: according to his theory, the evolution takes place only by the gradual accumulation of advantageous variants.
Kauffman I 27
KauffmanVs: according to that the first multicellular organisms would have evolved apart! That was obviously not the case: one of the most puzzling features of the Cambrian explosion is that the taxonomic system was filled from top to bottom. Selection / Kauffman: there is a second boundary of the selection: it not only fails in random landscapes.
I 278
KauffmanVsDarwin: the selection may also fail in uniform fitness landscapes, the "heartland" of Darwinism: it can trigger an error catastrophe.   E.g. a bacterial species with initially identical individuals can be scattered from a local peak, down, simply because the mutation rate is too high!

Kau I
St. Kauffman
Der Öltropfen im Wasser München 1998

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
Darwin, Ch. Mayr Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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V 261
Selection/MayrVsDarwin: the required perfection of a characteristic genetic variation may not occur! E.g. internal skeleton/Exoskeleton: vertebrates up to Dinosaurs - exoskeleton: the giant crab has remained the largest being. The difference is determined by the different ways that had been taken by the ancestors, not by the presence of features.

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998
Darwin, Ch. Mill Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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Dennett I 695
Ethics / Dennett: Question: what are the consequences of the fact that we are acting under time pressure? (> Darwin: acting under time pressure). > MillVsDarwin
I 697
Darwin: it is the best for the people to follow their permanent pulses. Physics / Dennett: this is true, such as mathematics, throughout the universe (> Minsky). BarrowVs.
Darwinists VsMill: the representatives of the theory of utility (Mill) should bear in mind that when we are before a decision we usually do not have time to consider the impact on the general public.
I 698
MillVsDarwin: E.g. Nobody said, the art of navigation is not was based on astronomy, because sailors do not have time to calculate the almanac. As rational beings they take the finished work calculated at sea. So rational people lead their lives with ready opinions about right and wrong, and more difficult questions with ready opinions of smart and stupid. (> Internalisation). DennettVsMill: his system was highly impractical. In practice, we see many reasons, including those which we should not overlook.

Mill II
J. St. Mill
Utilitarianism: 1st (First) Edition Oxford 1998

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
Darwin, Ch. Nietzsche Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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I 249
NietzscheVsDarwin: Dennett: he has only read his epigones.

Nie I
Friedrich Nietzsche
Sämtliche Werke: Kritische Studienausgabe Berlin 2009

Nie V
F. Nietzsche
Beyond Good and Evil 2014
Darwin, Ch. Popper Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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Mayr V 87
PopperVsDarwinism: (1974): "no verifiable theory, but a metaphysical research program ...." this criticism was later revoked by him.

Po I
K. Popper
Objektive Erkenntnis Hamburg 1993

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998
Darwin, Ch. Wittgenstein Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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Putnam V 148/149
Wittgenstein: (lectures and discussions) WittgensteinVsPsychoanalysis "myth", admired Freud's mind. WittgensteinVsDarwin: "In a statement, the most important to me is, that it works, that we can predict something from it." The physics is related to the engineering. ~ "People are convinced by extremely meager reasons".

Vollmer I 290
WittgensteinVsDarwin: (Tractatus 4.1122) "has not more to do with the philosophy than any other hypothesis of natural science."

W II
L. Wittgenstein
Vorlesungen 1930-35 Frankfurt 1989

W III
L. Wittgenstein
Das Blaue Buch - Eine Philosophische Betrachtung Frankfurt 1984

W IV
L. Wittgenstein
Tractatus Logico Philosophicus Frankfurt/M 1960

Pu I
H. Putnam
Von einem Realistischen Standpunkt Frankfurt 1993

Pu II
H. Putnam
Repräsentation und Realität Frankfurt 1999

Pu III
H. Putnam
Für eine Erneuerung der Philosophie Stuttgart 1997

Pu IV
H. Putnam
Pragmatismus Eine offene Frage Frankfurt 1995

Pu V
H. Putnam
Vernunft, Wahrheit und Geschichte Frankfurt 1990

Vo I
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd I Stuttgart 1988

Vo II
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd II Stuttgart 1988
Darwin, Ch. Verschiedene Vs Darwin, Ch. Gould II 101
CuvierVsEvolution: he concluded from his principle of interaction that evolution had to be excluded.
II 136
VavilovVsDarwin: variation does not take place in all directions, but arranged in classes of chemistry and crystallography, which are analogous. Vavilov has underemphasized the creative role of the environment.
II 328
The opponents of Darwin always bring the same litany: Darwin must have been wrong - the order can not arise by chance (e.g. KoestlerVsDarwin).
Pinker I 403
Mortimer AdlerVsDarwinismus: (Philosoph) 1940: Evolution könne nicht stattgefunden haben, weil es auch kein dreieinhalbseitiges Dreieck gäbe. Darwin: es ist sehr wohl möglich, dass in der Vergangenheit Zwischenformen aufgetreten sind.
natürliche Art/Darwin: ist kein Idealtyp, sondern eine Population.

Vollmer I 260
Selektion/Vollmer: es gibt kein ernsthaftes Argument, wonach das Selektionsprinzip zirkulär sei. VsDarwinismus/Tautologie: Das Argument gegen den Darwinismus, er sei tautologisch, ist verfehlt: "Survival of the survivor": VollmerVsVs: Fitness wird nicht nach dem Überleben des Individuums bestimmt, sondern durch Fortpflanzungserfolg, mehr Nahrung, mehr Wohnraum, mehr Partner, mehr Nachkommen usw.





Pi I
St. Pinker
Wie das Denken im Kopf entsteht München 1998

Vo I
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd I Stuttgart 1988

Vo II
G. Vollmer
Die Natur der Erkenntnis Bd II Stuttgart 1988
Darwin, Ch. Bigelow Vs Darwin, Ch.
 
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I 332
VsDarwinism/VsDarwin/Bigelow/Pargetter: common objection: the "survival of the fittest" is an empty tautology. BigelowVsVs: the objection assumes that fitness could only be determined retrospectively. It also assumes that the fact that some individuals survive is precisely what constitutes the fitness. (circular). BigelowVsAetiological theory: based on the same misunderstanding. It then claims that even the property of having a function is a retrospective property that is constituted by the story of survival. Thus the concept of function is robbed of its explanatory potential. I 333 Circularity/Bigelow/Pargetter: This objection is often raised falsely VsDarwinism. Fitness/Solution/Bigelow/Pargetter: but not retrospectively defined, but it is analogous to a disposition.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990
Lamarck, J.-B. Mayr Vs Lamarck, J.-B.
 
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Gould I 217
Art / Ernst MayrVsDarwin, VsLamarck: "species are a product of evolution and not the human spirit."

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998
Mill, J. St. Dennett Vs Mill, J. St.
 
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Dennett I 697
Ethics/Dennett: Question: What consequences result from the fact that we are acting under time pressure? (> Darwin: acting under time pressure). > MillVsDarwin Dennett I 695 Darwin: it is best for the human to follow their permanent impulses. Physics/Dennett: true, like mathematics, in the entire universe (> Minsky). BarrowVs.
Darwin’s followers VsMill: the representatives of utility theory (Mill) should keep in mind that we usually do not have time to consider the impact on the general public when facing a decision.
Dennett I 698
MillVsDarwin: No one asserts that the art of navigation is not based on astronomy, because sailors do not have time to calculate the almanac. As rational beings, they take the finished calculated work to sea. This way, rational people lead their lives with ready-made opinions about right and wrong and the more difficult questions of wise and foolish. (Internalization). DennettVsMill: this covered the fact that his system was highly impractical. In practice, we overlook many reasons, even those that we should not overlook.

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

The author or concept searched is found in the following disputes of scientific camps.
Disputed term/author/ism Pro/Versus
Entry
Reference
Darwinism Versus Dennett I 543
ChomskyVsSkinner, ChomskyVsArtificial Intelligence, ChomskyVsDarwin

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999