Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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Entry
Reference
Personality Traits Zuckerman Corr I 327
Personality traits/Zuckerman: Zuckerman(1) linked personality traits to underlying behavioural mechanisms, which he in turn linked to the brain functions of various neurotransmitters, hormones and enzymes. One notable feature of his theorizing is that he described behavioural mechanisms (including approach, inhibition and arousal) as determined by multiple biological systems and as contributing to multiple traits. In his model, for example, approach is influenced by both dopamine and testosterone and contributes to both Sociability and Impulsive Sensation-Seeking. >Personality traits/Cloninger, CloningerVsZuckerman, ZuckermanVsCloninger.


1. Zuckerman, M. 2005. Psychobiology of personality, 2nd edn rev. and updated. New York: Cambridge University Press



Colin G. DeYoung and Jeremy R. Gray, „ Personality neuroscience: explaining individual differences in affect, behaviour and cognition“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press


Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018
Temperament Cloninger Corr I 328
Temperament/R. C. Cloninger: He hypothesized that the original three traits and Persistence reflect dimensions of temperament, meaning that they should be evident early in ontogeny and strongly genetically determined. In contrast, he hypothesized that Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence reflect dimensions of character, meaning that they should develop later, being determined by experience during development rather than primarily by genes. VsCloninger: Research has demonstrated several problems with Cloninger’s model (>personality traits/Cloninger).
(1) A simple distinction between temperament and character appears untenable. The character traits show much the same levels of heritability as the temperament traits (Ando, Suzuki, Yamagata et al. 2004(1); Gillespie, Cloninger, Heath and Martin 2003)(2).
(2) Evidence has accumulated to contradict the idea that single neurotransmitter systems are responsible for Novelty-Seeking, Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence (Paris 2005)(3).
(3) Cloninger’s seven-factor structure has not proven consistently replicable. Factor analyses have demonstrated (a) that the scales Cloninger developed do not group together in the manner that he assigned them to his seven traits (Ando, Suzuki, Yamagata et al. 2004(1); Ball, Tennen and Kranzler 1999(4); Herbst, Zonderman, McCrae and Costa 2000)(5), and (b) that his instrument is best described by the five factor structure of the Big Five (Markon, Krueger and Watson 2005(6); Ramanaiah, Rielage and Cheng 2002)(7).



1. Ando, J., Suzuki, A., Yamagata, S., Kijima, N., Maekawa, H., Ono, Y. and Jang, K. L. 2004. Genetic and environmental structure of Cloninger’s temperament and character character dimensions, Journal of Personality Disorders 18: 379–93
2. Gillespie, N. A., Cloninger, C. R., Heath, A. C. and Martin, N. G. 2003. The genetic and environmental relationship between Cloninger’s dimensions of temperament and character, Personality and Individual Differences 35: 1931–46
3. Paris, J. 2005. Neurobiological dimensional models of personality: a review of the models of Cloninger, Depue, and Siever, Journal of Personality Disorders 19: 156–70
4. Ball, S. A., Tennen, H. and Kranzler, H. R. 1999. Factor replicability and validity of the Temperament and Character Inventory in substance-dependent patients, Psychological Assessment 11: 514–24
5. Herbst, J. H., Zonderman, A. B., McCrae, R. R. and Costa, P. T. 2000. Do the dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory map a simple genetic architecture? Evidence from molecular genetics and factor analysis, American Journal of Psychiatry 157: 1285–90
6. Markon, K. E., Krueger, R. F. and Watson, D. 2005. Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: an integrative hierarchical approach, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88: 139–57
7. Ramanaiah, N. V., Rielage, J. K. and Cheng, Y. 2002. Cloninger’s temperament and character inventory and the NEO Five–Factor Inventory, Psychological Reports 90: 59–63



Colin G. DeYoung and Jeremy R. Gray, „ Personality neuroscience: explaining individual differences in affect, behaviour and cognition“, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press


Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018