|Attachment Theory||Ainsworth||Corr I 228
Attachment theory/Ainsworth/Shaver/Mikulincer: Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters and Wall (1978)(1) added important ideas and assessment procedures, which allowed her and Bowlby’s theory to be rigorously tested, revised and expanded for more than thirty years. AinsworthVsBowlby.
1. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E. and Wall, S. 1978. Patterns of attachment: assessed in the Strange Situation and at home. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer, “Attachment theory: I. Motivational, individual-differences and structural aspects”, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press
Philip J. Corr
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009
|Periods of Development||Psychological Theories||Upton I 4
Periods of Development/psychological theories: A. critical periods: A critical period is a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest impact. In developmental psychology, a critical period for development usually implies that certain environmental stimuli are necessary for typical development to occur. John Bowlby (1951)(1), for example, suggested that, if children did not receive the right kind of care in the first two years of life, their emotional development would be adversely affected. According to Bowlby, between six months and two years of age is a critical period for relationship formation. VsBowlby: Better understanding of the >plasticity and >resilience of human nature has led to a reassessment of this idea. Most developmentalists now agree that, rather than suffering permanent damage from a lack of stimuli during early periods of development, it is more likely that people can use later experiences to help them overcome deficits. It is now more common to talk about ‘sensitive’ rather than ‘critical’ periods.
B. Sensitive periods: In a sensitive period we may be more susceptible to particular stimuli; however, the absence of those stimuli does not always result in irreversible damage. >Stability/Developmental psychology.
1. Bowlby, J. (1951). Maternal Care and Mental Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Developmental Psychology 2011